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Sigismund Baldinger (1510-1558), the sitter, and by descent to
The last Freiherr von Baldinger, from whose estate purchased in 1921 by the following.
with Julius Böhler, Munich.
Baron Mór Lipót Herzog (1869-1934), at the Herzog palace on Andrássy út, Budapest, by 1927, and by descent to his son,
Baron András Herzog (b. 1902), Budapest, by 1938.
Sold under duress by Baron András Herzog in 1941 to Galerie St. Lucas, Vienna, acting as agent for Dr. Hans Posse, Dresden, on behalf of the German Reich, for the planned Fhürermuseum, Linz, no. 2020.
Transferred to the Wiesbaden Central Collecting Point by Allied Forces, 10 July 1945 (Mü. 3647).
The Federal Republic of Germany, by which given on long-term loan, in 1966, to the Staatlichen Museen, Kassel, inv. no. L. 88.
Restituted by the Federal Republic of Germany to the children of Baron Andrs Herzog, in February 2010.
Please note that fig 4. in the catalogue should have copyright credited to Alinari Archives, Florence.
Fig 7. should also be credited to Finsiel/Alinari Archives - Special credit required: Reproduced with the permission of Ministero per i Beni e le Attivit Culturali).
THE HERZOG COLLECTION
Few collections occupy as important a place in the history of Hungarian collecting as that formed by Baron Mór Lipót Herzog (1869-1934) at the turn of the last century. First housed in the opulent Herzog palace in Budapest's Andrássy boulevard, the collection numbered between 1,500 and 2,500 objects at its peak, reflecting Mór Lipót Herzog's passionate interest in the fine and decorative arts--above all, in the Old Masters. Even a selective list of the masterpieces in his collection is crowded with important names: Van der Goes, Clouet, Paris Bordone, Cranach, Bruyn, Frans Hals (Portrait of a gentleman, aged 43, San Diego, Timken Art Gallery, Putnam Foundation), Giambattista Tiepolo (The Apotheosis of Aeneas, Cambridge, Mass., Fogg Art Museum), Francesco Gaurdi. His collection of Spanish pictures, crowned with ten stunning paintings by El Greco, including The Immaculate Conception (Lugano-Castagnola, Thyssen-Bornemisza collection), also had works by Alonso Cano, Zurbarán, Goya, and a rare altarpiece by Pedro Machuca. Pictures of the British school were rarely encountered on the Continent in such force, with works by Bonington, Lawrence, Raeburn and Opie. The modern pictures included Corot (The lady with a daisy, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts), Courbet (The Spring and The Hall of Blonay, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts), several by Cézanne, (including the Still-life with profile of Laval, Indianapolis Museum of Art), Renoir, Fantin-Latour, Monet, Gaugin and Daumier (Men Bathing, Waltham, Rose Art Museum). His was the largest and most diverse Hungarian collection of its time, and the finest of its scale.
Mór Lipót (sometimes Maurice Leopold) Herzog began collecting with the encouragement and example of his friend and business partner Marcell Nemes (1866-1930), the Transylvanian coal trader who formed another of Hungary's most celebrated collections, largely dispersed by the time of the Great War (the 1913 sale of the Nemes collection in Paris was one of the most notable single-owner sales of its time). Nemes was famed for the sensitivity, knowledge and enthusiasm which informed his collecting, and which he was to find reflected in Herzog, whose beginnings as a collector came when Nemes persuaded him to participate in the shared purchases of paintings as speculative investments. While Nemes was himself a wealthy man and a shrewd businessman, he aspired to build a collection worthy of international renown, and partnership with Herzog could enable him to do so. Herzog's banking connections and vast family fortune, founded on land rents from the greater part of present-day Macedonia, meant that he could pay any price for the best works of art. In return for Herzog's participation, Nemes acted as a valued and knowledgeable advisor to Herzog in the latter's own personal collecting, which was at its strongest in the years 1913 to 1928. It is no coincidence that this period followed the famed 1913 Nemes sale in Paris; Herzog's collecting accelerated just as Nemes's was winding down, and, indeed, Herzog acquired many pictures from Nemes, including most of the Herzog group of paintings by El Greco, then the most significant such group in private hands. In Herzog's generation, his collection could brook comparison with only two others in Budapest: that of Nemes until it was dispersed, and that of Baron Ferenc Hatvany (1881-1958), heir to a fortune made in the Hungarian sugar industry. Hatvany was Herzog's brother-in-law, and these three great Budapest collectors were thus closely interconnected, inhabiting an intimate world in which new acquisitions and discoveries were compared and discussed.
The best of the collection was not kept in the private rooms of the Herzog palace. Instead, the entirety of the old building of the Herzog residence was given over to the collection, with the exception that Mór Lipót himself kept the El Greco room as his private study. There, surrounded by some of the most beautiful of his pictures, and nestled within the collection as a larger whole, Herzog conducted the correspondence of his personal and his public life. The importance of the El Grecos, the taste for which he had learned from Nemes, provides an eloquent summation of Herzog's collecting: El Greco, long neglected by historians and collectors, had been 'rediscovered' with excitement and aplomb in the nineteenth century, and by the turn of the twentieth was being vociferously championed by the most intelligent of artists, critics and historians. To Herzog's contemporaries El Greco represented both the rich legacy of the Old Masters, and the vision and ideals of modern painters. Herzog understood and valued both of these two fields of collecting--he perceived the profound common ground between them, and valued the qualities the best modern pictures shared with the Old Masters: their sheer visual beauty, and their spiritual significance as the evidence of man's ability to make infinitely precious things.
The fame of the Herzog collection was widespread by the 1920s. In 1927, an illustrated catalogue of best of the Old Masters and modern pictures was prepared by Ludwig von Baldass, a respected Vienna-School art historian and curator at the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. Published in Hungarian, the catalogue begins with a discussion of Herzog's early Italian and German pictures, with special attention given to the sixteenth-century German portraits, singling out the Portrait of Sigismund Baldinger by Georg Pencz. Although Mór Lipót Herzog gradually stopped acquiring works by 1930, selling a small number of his pictures, the vast majority of the collection was inherited by his three children, Mme. Alfonz Weiss (née Erzsébet Herzog), András Herzog and István Herzog. During the Second World War, the Herzogs faced persecution as one of the most prominent Jewish families in Hungary. The unlawful dispersal of the collection during this period took several stages. The unlawful dispersal of the collection during this period took several stages. Some of the pictures were hand-picked by Adolf Eichmann, then headquartered in Budapest, as personal booty; others were taken into custody by the Hungarian state and are now in the Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest; still others were dispersed through wartime looting or in forced sales. At least one work, Pencz's Baldinger, was selected for the Führermuseum in Linz, a museum of masterpieces planned by Hitler, which was to contain a selection of only the greatest works of art.
PROPERTY FROM THE HERZOG COLLECTION
E. Auerbach, Die deutsche Bildnismalerei im 16. Jahrhundert in Franken, Schwaben und Bayern, dissertation, Frankfurt am Main, 1925, pp. 72ff., 96.
L. Baldass, 'Herzog Báró Gyüjteménye', in Magyar Müvészet, Budapest, 1927, pp. 178 and 187, fig. 10 [subsequently cited as Katalog der Sammlung Herczog, Budapest, 1927, no. 10].
E. Auerbach and T. Hampe, 'Nürnburg und Ungarn', in 'Sonntagskurier', Frankischen Kurier, IX, no. 49, 2 June 1928.
W.R. Deusche, Deutsche Malerei des 16. Jahrhunderts, Berlin, 1935, p. 29, pl. 19.
H.G. Gmelin, 'Georg Pencz als Maler', in Müncher Jahrbuch, XVII, 1966, no. 3, pp. 71, 97 and 103, no. 46, fig. 56.
H.G. Gmelin, 'Georg Pencz', in Fränkische Lebensbilder: Veröffentlichungen der Gesellschaft für fränkische Geschichte, series VIIA, Fränkische Lebensbilder: Neueu Folge der Lebensläufe aus Franken, II, Würzburg, 1968, p. 251.
E. Herzog and J.M. Lehmann, Unbekannte Schätze der Kasseler Gemälde-Galerie, Kassel, 1968, pp. 56-7, illustrated.
E. Herzog, Die Gemäldegalerie der Staatlichen Kunstsammlungen Kassel, Hanau, 1969, p. 78, no. 10, fig. 10.
W. Adler, E. Herzog, F. Lahusen and J.M. Lehmann, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Schloß Wilhelmshöhe, Kassel, Brunswick, 1981 (2nd printing 1982), p. 121.
J.M. Lehmann, Staatliche Kunstammlung Kassel, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Schloß Wilhelmshöhe: Bildheft mit 100 Meisterwerken, Kassel, 1975, pp. viii, fig. 36.
J.M. Lehmann (trans. C. Keppel and C. Simmenroth-Bideau), Staatliche Kunstammlung Kassel, Gemldegalerie Alte Meister, Schloß Wilhelmshöhe: Bildheft mit 100 Meisterwerken, Kassel, 1979, pp. viii, xiii, xviii and xxi, fig. 28.
A. Schneckenburger-Broschek, Die altdeutsche Malerei, Kassel, 1982, pp. 8, 14, 35, 38, 66 and 89, illustrated.
P. Strieder, Tafelmalerei in Nürnburg, 1350-1550, Königstein im Taunus, 1993, pp. 163-4 and 290, no. 186, fig. 625.
H.G. Gmelin, 'Pencz, Georg', in J. Turner, ed., The Dictionary of Art, London and New York, 1998, XXIV, p. 356.
B. Schnackenburg, Gesamtkatalog Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister Kassel, Mainz, 1996, I, pp. 214-215, no. GK 1146, II, p. 22 and pl. 240.
A. Schenckenburger-Broschek, Altdeutsche Malerei: Die Tafelbilder und Altäre des 14. bis 16. Jahrhunderts in der Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister und in Hessischen Landesmuseum Kassel, Euraburg, 1997, pp. 9 and 225-9, figs. 159-62.
B. Aikema and B.L. Brown, Renaissance Venice and the North: Crosscurrents in the time of Dürer, Bellini and Titian, London, 1999, p. 386.
B. Schwarz, Hitlers Museum. Die Fotoalben Gemäldegalerie Linz: Dokumente zum 'Führersmuseum', Vienna, Cologne and Weimar, 2004, p. 305, under Album IX, 'Rekonstruktion des Inhalts der fehlenden Bände IX-XIX, basierend auf Gemäldegalerie Linz, Inhaltsverzeichnis Bd. I-XX: BAK B 323/192', 'Band IX', no. IX/3, 'Georg Pencz, Bildnis Hans Sigmund von Baldinger (1545)'.