P. Kaplony, 'Bemerkungen zu einigen Steingefäßen mit archaïschen Königsnamen', MDAI, vol. 20, 1965, p. 13, no. 21.
W. Hornbostel, Kunst der Antike - Schätze aus norddeutschem Privatbesitz, Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg, Mainz, 1977, cat. no. 2.
Historical records regarding King Den are stronger than for any other monarchs of this period. Many labels and inscriptions citing events from his reign have been found, including on stone vases like the present lot. He is credited with a reign of 20 years, having began as co-regent with his mother, the Queen Merithneith. He established many traditions of court rituals and imagery which later defined pharaonic rulers; for example, he was the first to use the Double crown and to be called King of Lower and Upper Egypt, and to be represented smiting the enemies of Egypt.