The tughras of Selim II (1566-1574), like his predecessor Süleyman the Magnificent (1520-1566) and successor Murad III (1574-1595) are decorated with a splendour and finesse that characterises the work of the Ottoman naqqashkane in the 16th century. As Atil writes, there existed a considerable amount of standardization in the selection and placement of decorative themes within these tughras (Esin Atil, The Age of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent, exhibition catalogue, Washington D.C., 1987, p.40). Another tughra of Selim II which surmounts a firman dated 1569, in the Museum of Turkish and Islamic Art in Istanbul, uses precisely the same arrangement of designs (4125; published in Atil, op.cit., fig.5, p.42). Another tughra with a similar arrangement of motifs is in the David Collection (https://www.davidmus.dk/files/c/b/323/15_5-51-2002-Firman-Selim-2-f.jpg). The “tre lune” paper used here, watermarked with three crescents, was used as early as 1520 and was made primarily for Levant export trade (Terence Walz, The Trans-Saharan Book Trade, London, 2010, p.82).