DARWIN, Charles Robert (1809-1882). On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. London: John Murray, 1859.
8° in 12's (198 x 120mm). Folding lithographic diagram. 32-page list of John Murray's books at end, dated June 1859, printed on different paper. (Half-title, title and first contents leaf very lightly spotted, tiny marginal chip to fore-edge to p.25, small marginal tear to top edge to 383-384pp.) Uncut in original green cloth, covers stamped in blind, spine lettered and decorated in gilt, brown glazed endpapers [Freeman's variant 'a' binding] (hinges repaired, head- and tailcaps strengthened, upper joint repaired at head, extremities lightly rubbed, edges and corners a fraction bumped, the whole slightly cocked).
FIRST EDITION OF 'THE MOST IMPORTANT SINGLE WORK IN SCIENCE' (Dibner). Although some key observations and findings from the voyage of the Beagle acted as his initial inspiration, Darwin's ideas about the beneficial mutation of species did not cohere into the theory of evolution until his reading of Thomas Malthus's Essay on the Principle of Population in the latter half of 1838. The gestation of the theory was slow, but in 1856, following a conversation with Sir Charles Lyell about his hypothesis, Darwin was determined to bring it to a conclusion. Two years later he had composed an extended treatise entitled 'Natural Selection' some two thirds complete at 250,000 words. Then in June 1858 Darwin received a letter about evolution from Alfred Russel Wallace, who had independently arrived at similar conclusions. The two scientists issued a joint paper on the subject at the Linnean Society on 1 July. Darwin was now forced to publish, and urged on by Hooker, he condensed his big book into an 'abstract' of some 155,000 words. 'The book, stripped of references and academic paraphenalia, was aimed not at the specialists, but directly at the reading public'. Finally published as On the Origin of Species on 24 November 1859 in a print run of 1250 copies, it expounded a theory of evolution that was recognisably superior and of infinitely greater impact than all previous hypotheses explaining biological diversity. Dibner Heralds (1980) 199; Eimas Heirs 1724; Freeman 373; Garrison-Morton (1991) 220; Grolier Science 23b; Norman 593; PMM 344b; Sparrow Milestones 49; Waller 10786.