Klaus Maurice & Otto Mayr, Die Welt Als Uhr, Deutsche Uhren und Automaton 1550-1650, Munich, 1980, p.248, fig.73
Tardy, French Clocks, Clocks the World Over, Vol.IV, Paris, 1985, pp.206-207
Klaus Maurice, Die deutsche Räderuhr, Part II, Munich, 1976, pp.277-278, figs. 272-277.
An equestrian automaton clock of closely related design, by Nikolaus Schmidt of Augsburg (illustrated Maurice & Mayr), was sold Sotheby's New York, Masterpieces from the Time Museum, 19 June 2002, lot 203.
By the end of the 16th Century the art of automata making was well established in South Germany, particularly in Nuremberg and Augsburg. Popular subjects included lions with moving eyes and jaws and bears. Of human automata, the most common were Moorish or Turkish standing figures pointing to the time on a globe or recumbent figures of Urania (see Maurice figs.315-381). Equestrian figures are far more rare. Maurice shows three examples of Turkish pashas on horseback (figs.272-274) and just three Reiter clocks, including what appears to be the present example; the other two have figures wearing different hats and one of them has drums. The Sotheby's and Tardy clocks are modelled with the same hat and cape as on the present figure. The clothing and sceptre suggest a figure high rank -- quite probably the Holy Roman Emperor.