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Donné par Ingres à l'épouse du modèle, Henriette-Ursule Claire (circa 1794-1836); passe à sa mort à André-Benoît Taurel, Amsterdam; resté dans la descendance jusqu'au moins 1885.
Raimundo de Madrazo y Garreta (1841-1920), Versailles.
Comtesse de Béhague; Sotheby's, Londres, 29 juin 1926, lot 101 (310 livres sterling à Colnaghi).
M. Knoedler and Co., New York, d'où acquis en 1927 par
John Nicholas Brown, Providence, Rhode Island.
David Tunick, New York.
Galerie Alain Tarica, Paris, d'où acquis en 1981 par Yves Saint Laurent et Pierre Bergé.
C.E. Taurel, L'Album T., Amsterdam et La Haye, 1885, pp. 2, 15, ill. opp. p. 3 (la gravure).
H. Lapauze, Les dessins de J.-A.D. Ingres du Musée de Montauban, Paris, 1901, p. 268.
H. Lapauze, Ingres: Sa Vie et Son Oeuvre (1780-1867), d'après des documents inédits, Paris, 1911, ill. p. 178 (la gravure).
H. Lapauze, 'Jean Briant, paysagiste (1760-1799): Maîtres de Ingres, et le paysage dans l'oeuvre de Ingres', in La revue de l'art ancien et moderne, février-avril 1911, p. 48.
M.D. Zable, 'Ingres in America', in Arts, XVI, février 1930, p. 381.
E. S. Siple, 'Art in America: Exhibitions of French Art in New York and Springfield', in The Burlington Magazine, LXXV, décembre 1939, p. 249.
J. Alazard, Ingres et l'ingrisme, Paris, 1950, pp. 37, 144, note 4. H.E. van Gelder, 'Ingres en de familie Taurel', in Maandblad voor beeldende Kunsten, XXVI, janvier 1950, pp. 2-10, fig. 4 (la gravure).
H. Naef, Rome vue par Ingres, Lausanne, 1960, pp. 22, 27, sous no. 24, fig. 7.
H. Naef, 'Ingres und die Familien Thévenin und Taurel', in Nederlands kunshistorisch jaarboek', XVI, 1965, pp. 138-142, 154-155, no. 4, fig. 4.
R. Jullian, 'Ingres et le paysage' (colloque Ingres, Paris, 1967), Paris, 1969, p. 89.
A. Mongan, 'Ingres as a Great Portrait Draughtsman' (colloque Ingres, Paris, 1967), Paris, 1969, pp. 146, 156, fig. 24.
P. Hattis, 'Ingres in Rome', in Art News, LXX, no. 3, mai 1971, p. 29, ill.
H. Naef, Die Bildniszeichnungen von J.-A.D. Ingres, Berne, 1977-1980, II, pp. 216-222 et IV, pp. 450-451, no. 241, ill.
G. Vigne, Dessins d'Ingres. Catalogue raisonné des dessins du musée de Montauban, Paris, 1995, p. 560, sous no. 3113.
D. Hockney, Secret Knowledge. Rediscovering the lost techniques of the Old Masters, Londres, 2001, ill. p. 28 (détail).
L.-A. Prat, Ingres (Louvre. Cabinet des dessins, 4), Paris, Milan, 2004, p. 83, sous no. 24.
G. Tinterow et A.E. Miller, 'Ingres paysagiste', dans Ingres, cat. expo. Paris, Musée du Louvre, 2006, p. 88, fig. 59.
Cambridge (Mass.), Fogg Art Museum, Exhibition of French Painting of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, 1929, no. 85.
Springfield, Museum of Fine Arts and New York, M. Knoedler and Co., David and Ingres: Paintings and Drawings, 1939-40, no. 28, ill.
New York, Paul Rosenberg and Co., Ingres in American Collections, 1961, no. 28, ill.
Cambridge (Mass.), Fogg Art Museum, Forty Master Drawings from the Collection of John Nicholas Brown, 1962, no. 17, ill.
Cambridge (Mass.), Fogg Art Museum, Ingres Centennial Exhibition, 1867-1967: Drawings, Watercolors and Oil Sketches from American Collections, 1967, no. 49, ill.
Paris, Petit Palais, Ingres, 1967-8, no. 113, ill.
Washington, National Gallery of Art et autres lieux, Ingres in Rome: A Loan Exhibition from the Musée Ingres, Montauban, and American Collections, 1971, no. 148, ill.
Londres, The National Gallery et autres lieux, Portraits by Ingres. Image of an Epoch, 1999-2000, no. 84, ill.
Rome, Villa Médicis, Maestà di Roma da Napoleone all'unità d'Italia. Da Ingres a Degas, Artisti francesci a Roma, 2003, no. 39, ill.
Post Lot Text
PORTRAIT OF ANDRÉ BENOÎT BARREAU, CALLED TAUREL, SIGNED BY JEAN-DOMINIQUE INGRES AND DATED '1819'
As suggested by Ingres' handwritten inscription, 'Dedicated to Madame Taurel', this drawing was given by the artist as a wedding gift to the model's wife, Henriette-Ursule. It was included, alongside the portrait of the latter produced three years earlier (now in the Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, H. Naef, 1977-1980, op. cit., no. 191), in an album given to the young couple by their friends, the majority of whom were young French artists in residence at the French Academy in Rome (including Jean Alaux, himself the subject of a portrait by Ingres also featuring in this sale, lot 81), who filled it with their own drawings.
André-Benoît Barreau, known as Taurel, came from a humble background and was born in Paris on 9th September 1794. A student of Pierre-Narcisse Guérin and subsequently the engraver Charles-Clément Bervic, he won the Rome prize for engraving in 1818. He had only been in the city for a few months when he married Henriette-Ursule Le Claire (fig. 4), the adopted daughter of the Director of the French Academy in Rome, the painter Charles Thévenin (1764-1838) who had replaced Guillon-Lethière at the head of the prestigious institution in 1817. The Taurels returned to Paris in 1823, moving to Amsterdam five years later where the artist had been appointed as a professor at the Fine Arts Academy, with the intention of founding a chair of engraving. The couple would spend the rest of their lives in Holland. Henriette-Ursule died in 1836 leaving Taurel with their four children. Ten years later, the artist remarried and had another four children. He died in 1859.
Although he was almost fifteen years their senior, Ingres formed a close friendship with the Taurels, which continued after their departure from Rome. When Ingres returned to Paris in 1824, after his long stay in Italy, he initially lived with the Taurels at their home in passage Sainte-Marie, rue du Bac. In around 1825, he also drew a touching portrait of the couple's first child, Charlotte-Madeleine, born in 1820 (fig. 3), whose godmother was none other than Madame Ingres (Paris, Musée du Louvre, Naef, op. cit., no. 294). Ingres was himself a godfather to the Taurel's third child, Marie-André-Auguste, who would later become a modest lithographer. In 1830, Ingres sent the portrait of his wife (fig. 2), on the left of which he had sketched his own face (New York, private collection, Naef, op. cit., no. 328), to Amsterdam with a dedication 'To his good friends the Taurels'. The drawing was soon added to the album given to the couple as a wedding gift.
In 1819, at the time when this portrait was drawn, Ingres had not been a resident at the French Academy for almost ten years. Having arrived in Rome in 1806, he later left the Villa Medici in 1810, but chose to stay in Italy. He remained deeply loyal to the institution, initially thanks to his close ties with Guillon-Lethière, who had looked after him as a resident and who kept on trying to find him commissions throughout his lengthy tenure as Director. However, when Charles Thévenin took over as the Director at the Villa, Ingres' professional and financial position was far from secure. The fall of the empire, in addition to the cessation of all official commissions, had forced a large number of his patrons, the majority of whom worked for the imperial government in Italy, to leave Rome. Thévenin a great admirer of Ingres, devoted himself to making the new French Royal authorities aware of the painter's talent and used all his influence to ensure that the new French ambassador to Rome commissioned from Ingres a painting for the Church of Trinità dei Monti in Rome, Christ giving the keys to Saint Peter, (now Ingres Museum, Montauban). Ingres' affection for Taurel was doubtless facilitated by the gratitude he felt towards his wife's adopted father, of whom he drew two magnificent portraits. One of these, now in the Bonnat Museum in Bayonne (Naef, op. cit., no. 191) was given by Thévenin to his daughter and was also incorporated into the album given to the couple as a wedding gift.
In the present drawing, Ingres has depicted Taurel posing elegantly on the Bosco terrace of the Villa Medici, the facade of which can be seen on the right, overlooking the garden decorated with the reliefs of the Ara Pacis. On the left is a sketched view of the roofs of Rome, dominated by the dome of the Basilica of Sant'Agnese in Agone. The Villa had been the residence of the Medici in Rome since 1576 and was acquired by the French state in 1803 as part of an exchange, becoming the new home of the French Academy in the city (fig. 1). In the year 1793, the French institution had closed down following a riot at its previous location, Palazzo Mancini. The setting chosen by Ingres for the portrait of the young engraver is therefore highly symbolic. It was at the Villa Medici that Ingres had spent his first years in Rome, it was there that Taurel had stayed as a resident of the Academy and there too that he had met his future wife, for whom this drawing was intended, and who was none other than the adopted daughter of the current Director of the institution...
Although 450 drawn portraits are included in Hans Naef's excellent catalogue raisonné, the rather modest number of these with a landscape background may come as a surprise. G. Tinterow and A.E. Miller (op. cit., pp. 84-89) list only 34 drawings in total (the Yves Saint Laurent and Pierre Bergé collection includes another outdoor portrait, that of the architect Baltard, lot 80). From 1810 onwards, Ingres most frequently used his own earlier drawings, or even works by other artists, for the backgrounds of his portraits. In this instance, the view of the Villa Medici in this picture re-uses a drawing currently housed in the museum in Montauban (inv. 867.4415) which Georges Vigne attributes to Taurel himself (op. cit., no. 3113).
In the controversial work by David Hockney, Secret Knowledge: Rediscovering the lost techniques of the Old Masters, the author attempted to demonstrate that Ingres had made use of a drawing aid or camera lucida when creating his portraits. This device consists of a prism which superimposes the subject to be drawn onto the background against which it should be placed. The artist uses this superimposed image to locate the key points of the subject to be reproduced and to even sketch its main features. The perspective is reproduced perfectly, without any construction. In his book, Hockney reproduces a detail of this drawing in counterpoint to one of his own works produced using this device (op. cit., London, 2001, pp. 29-30).
Having remained in the possession of the model's descendents until at least 1885 (when it was engraved by Taurel's grandson), this drawing passed into the collection of a Spanish painter who specialised in portraits of the mondaine society in Paris, Raimundo de Madrazo y Garreta (1841-1920), who produced numerous salon paintings. The drawing then became one of the innumerable treasures collected by the Countess Martine-Marie Paule de Béhague (1869-1939), in her private residence on the rue Saint-Dominique - now the Romanian Embassy - which Robert de Montesquiou described as the 'Byzantium of the Seventh dictrict'. Having been auctioned along with other of the Countess' possessions in 1926, the drawing was acquired the following year from Knoedler & Co. in New York by John Nicholas Brown (1900-1979), who created one of the greatest American collections of old master drawings in the first half of the 20th century at his home in Providence, Rhode Island. He also owned a Horse rider drawn in silverpoint on prepared paper by Leonardo da Vinci, which was auctioned at Christie's in London on 10th July 2001, and which is still the most expensive drawing by an old master ever sold at auction.
Surviving portraits drawn by Ingres between 1815 and 1819, depicting wealthy Englishmen visiting Rome on the Grand Tour, provide a unique biographical record in their own right, but they are never as touching and psychologically accurate as when they present a picture of the artist's friends and family, in particular of his fellow artists in residence at the Villa Medici. These works, which alone bear the stamp of friendship, provide a remarkable record of the life of the French Academy in Rome at the beginning of the 19th century and illustrate the strong bonds along its residents, which would not be broken after they had left the magical and enchanting world of the Villa. This magnificent portrait of Taurel, with the model's personality and the setting in which Ingres chose to draw him, is one of the most perfect examples of the Comédie humaine of the French society in Rome.