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    Sale 2256

    The Modern Age: The Hillman Family Collection

    5 November 2008, New York, Rockefeller Plaza

  • Lot 4

    Paul Cezanne (1839-1906)

    Portrait du fils de l'artiste (recto); Scéne illustrant un récit romantique (verso)

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    Paul Cezanne (1839-1906)
    Portrait du fils de l'artiste (recto); Scéne illustrant un récit romantique (verso)
    pencil on paper (recto); watercolor and pencil on paper (verso)
    19 5/8 x 12¾ in. (49.8 x 32.4 cm.)
    Executed circa 1875-1885


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    The present drawing depicts Cézanne's son Paul, born in January 1872 to Hortense Fiquet, whom the artist married fourteen years later. One of Cézanne's favorite portrait subjects, Paul appears in at least nine oils from the 1880s (Rewald, nos. 463-468, 534, 579, 649; fig. 1), along with numerous drawings. He also posed for the figure of Harlequin in the monumental painting Mardi Gras of 1888 (Rewald, no. 618; Pushkin State Museum, Moscow). In the present drawing, Paul adopts the classic contrapposto stance of ancient sculpture, with his weight on his right leg, his left foot extended, and his right hand resting on his hip. Suggesting momentary repose and incipient movement, this pose was one that studio models were often requested to hold for traditional drawing classes, of the sort that Cézanne took in the early 1860s at the Ecole Municipale de Dessin in Aix. Joseph Rishel has written about the present work, "This pose--graceful and manly--suits [Paul] especially well, and he seems to hold it proudly, mustering all the confidence that his adolescent years will allow. The existence of a similar drawing [Chappuis, no. 849; private collection] suggests that Cézanne was quite taken with the image of his son in this relaxed yet formal pose and was perhaps beginning to think in terms of a future project, the most ambitious composition he would undertake of his family: the Moscow Mardi Gras, in which a slightly older Paul displays a sly self-confidence that is pointedly lacking here" (in exh. cat., op. cit., Philadelphia, 1996, p. 284). In another study of the physique and psychology of an adolescent boy, one of four versions of Le garçon au gilet rouge from 1888-1890 (Rewald, no. 659; National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.), Cézanne posed the hired model Michelangelo di Rosa in a closely comparable stance.

    The present drawing has been dated on stylistic grounds to about 1885, when Paul would have been thirteen. Rishel has noted that Paul's costume of loose trousers, bare ankles, and soft-strapped shoes suggests a southern venue such as Aix, where Cézanne and his family spent most of the mid-1880s (ibid., p. 284). In the background of the drawing near Paul's left hand are traces of a floral motif reminiscent of a distinctive wallpaper pattern that appears in a group of still-lifes from 1879-1882. The wallpaper is thought to have decorated either the house in Melun where Cézanne, Hortense, and Paul lived in 1879-1880 or an apartment at 32, rue de l'Ouest in Paris that they occupied for two years after that. The present drawing, however, must post-date 1882, since Paul appears significantly older than ten. The floral motif might therefore represent a moveable studio prop or may simply be a pattern that Cézanne carried over from the earlier paintings to denote the plane of the wall.

    On the verso of the present drawing is a watercolor depicting a bearded man seated on a Gothic throne. He holds a quill pen and a sheet of paper, and he turns to look at a document proffered by a second man in a long robe. Venturi identified the image as a copy after a scene from Faust by Delacroix, but there is in fact no precise source for the watercolor in Delacroix's oeuvre (in op. cit., 1936, p. 246). Theodore Reff has observed similarities between Cézanne's scene and two lithographs by Delacroix, Mephistopheles Receiving the Student (Delteil, no. 63bis) and Goetz de Berlichingen Writing His Memoirs (Delteil, no. 122), but neither represents a direct parallel (in op. cit., 1960, p. 149, note 47). John Rewald has noted that Cézanne's image corresponds in some ways to the first chapter of Balzac's novel La peau de chagrin, in which an old merchant reveals to young scholar a Sanskrit document endowed with magical powers; he suggests that the present work is most likely a copy of a Romantic illustration that has yet to be identified (in op. cit., 1983, p. 100).

    Cézanne was indeed a fervent admirer of Delacroix, the Romantic painter par excellence. Sara Lichtenstein has catalogued twenty-two copies and variants after Delacroix in Cézanne's oeuvre, spanning his entire career; the only artist whom Cézanne copied more often was Rubens (in op. cit., p. 56). Cézanne owned at least three paintings and two original lithographs by Delacroix, as well as six reproductions of his work (ibid., p. 55). When Vollard presented Cézanne with a floral still-life by Delacroix that he had purchased at the sale of Victor Chocquet's collection in 1899, Cézanne wrote to thank the dealer "for the magnificent present you made me of the work of the great Master" (quoted in J. Rewald, op. cit., 1996, p. 526). Cézanne long intended to paint a scene of Delacroix's apotheosis, but the project never progressed beyond an oil sketch (Rewald, no. 746; cf. Rewald Watercolors, nos. 68-69). Two years before his death, Cézanne confessed to Emile Bernard, "I do not know if my indifferent health will ever allow me to realize my dream of painting his apotheosis" (quoted in J. Rewald, op. cit., 1983, p. 102).


    (fig. 1) Paul Cézanne, Le fils de l'artiste au fauteuil rouge, 1881-1882. Musée de l'Orangerie, Paris. BARCODE 25995497

    Provenance

    Paul Cézanne fils, Paris.
    César de Hauke, Paris.
    Richard S. Davis, Minneapolis.
    Valentin Gallery, New York.
    Alex and Rita K. Hillman, New York (acquired from the above, May 1954).
    Gift from the above to the present owner, 16 October 1968.


    Pre-Lot Text

    Property from the Alex Hillman Family Foundation


    Literature

    J. Rewald, Cézanne et Zola, Paris, 1936 (recto illustrated, pl. 47).
    L. Venturi, Cézanne: Son art, son oeuvre, Paris, 1936, vol. 1, p. 324, no. 1469 (recto illustrated, vol. 2, pl. 377).
    L. Venturi, Cézanne: Son art, son oeuvre, Paris, 1936, vol. 1, p. 246, no. 868 (verso illustrated, vol. 2, pl. 277).
    J. de Beuken, 'Un portrait de Cézanne: Deuxième partie 1881 à 1906,' in France-Illustration: Le Monde Illusté, Supplément Théatral et Littéraire, 25 August 1951, pp. 2-32 (illustrated).
    G. Berthold, Cézanne und die alten Meister, Stuttgart, 1958, p. 154 (verso).
    T. Reff, 'Studies in the Drawings of Cézanne,' Ph.D. Dissertation, Cambridge, 1958, p. 25.
    J. Canaday, 'Cézanne's Way,' in New York Times, 8 November 1959, p. 15 (illustrated).
    J. de Beucken, Cézanne, Munich, 1960, p. 74 (illustrated).
    T. Reff, 'Book Review: Gertrude Berthold Cézanne und die alten Meister' in Art Bulletin, June 1960, p. 149, no. 47.
    H. Perruchot, Cézanne, Cleveland and New York, 1961 (illustrated, fig. 31).
    T. Reff, 'Cézanne's Bather with Outstretched Arms,' in Gazette des Beaux-Arts, March 1962, pp. 188-189, no. 18 (illustrated).
    S. Lichtenstein, 'Cézanne and Delacroix,' in Art Bulletin, March 1964, p. 56.
    T. Reff, 'Letter to the Editor,' in Art Bulletin, September 1964, p. 425.
    P. de Boisdeffre, P. Cabanne and R. Cogniat, Cézanne, Paris, 1966, p. 19 (illustrated).
    W.V. Andersen, 'Cézanne, Tanguy Choquet,' in Art Bulletin, June 1967, p. 139, no. 32 (illustrated). W.V. Andersen, Cézanne's Portrait Drawings, Cambridge and London, 1970, pp. 32, 34 and 163, no. 169 (illustrated).
    A. Chappuis, The Drawings of Paul Cézanne: A Catalogue Raisonné, London, 1973, vol. 1, p. 210, no. 850 (verso illustrated, vol. 2, no. 850).
    S. Lichtenstein, 'Cézanne's Copies and Variants after Delacroix,' in Apollo, February 1975, p. 123.
    J. Rewald, ed., Paul Cézanne: Correspondance, Paris, 1978, p. 338, no. 24 (illustrated).
    L. Venturi, Cézanne, Geneva, 1978, p. 114 (illustrated).
    G. Adriani, Paul Cézanne: Dibujos, Barcelona, 1981, pp. 53-54 and 116, no. 55 (illustrated).
    J. Rewald, Paul Cézanne, The Watercolors: A Catalogue Raisonné, New York, 1983, p. 100, no. 63 (verso illustrated).
    E. Braun, Manet to Matisse: The Hillman Family Collection, Seattle and London, 1994, pp. 42-43, no. 5 (illustrated in color, p. 44 (recto); illustrated in color, p. 45 (verso)).
    Apollo, February 1975, p. 123.
    ezanne: A Catalogue Raisonné, J. Rewald, ed., Paul
    338, no. 24 (illustrated).
    ICézanne and Provence: The Painter in His L. Venturi, Cézanne, Geneva, 1978, p. 114 (illustra
    G. Adriani, Paul Cézanne: Dibujos, Barcelona, 1981, pp. 53-54 and 116, no. 55 (illustrated).
    J. Rewald, Paul Cézanne, The Watercolors: A Catalogue Raisonné, New York, 1983, p. 100, no. 63 (verso illustrated).
    E. Braun, Manet to Matisse: The Hillman Family Collection, Seattle and London, 1994, pp. 42-43, no. 5 (illustrated in color, p. 44
    (recto); illustrated in color, p. 45 (verso)).
    J. Rewald, The Paintings of Paul Cézanne: A Catalogue Raisonné
    ,


    Exhibited

    Paris, Galerie Renou et Collé, Cézanne, June 1935 (verso).
    Paris, Galerie Baugin, Cézanne, May-June 1950, no. 13 (verso).
    The Hague, Gemeentemuseum, Paul Cézanne 1839-1906, June-July 1956, no. 117 (illustrated).
    Aix-en-Provence, Pavillon de Vendôme, Exposition pour commémorer le cinquantenaire de la mort de Cézanne, July-August 1956, no. 90. Zurich, Paul Cézanne 1839-1906, August-October 1956, p. 39, no. 178 (illustrated).
    New York, Charles E. Slatkin Galleries, French Master Drawings: Renaissance to Modern, February-March 1959, no. 106.
    New York, Wildenstein & Co., Inc., Cézanne: Loan Exhibition for the Benefit of the National Organization of Mentally Ill Children, November-December 1959, no. 66 (illustrated).
    Vienna, Osterreichische Galerie, Oberes Belvedere, Paul Cézanne 1839-1906, April-June 1961, p. 36, no. 98.
    New York, Marlborough-Gerson Gallery, Artist and Maecenas: A Tribute to Curt Valentin, November-December 1963, p. 70, no. 135 (illustrated).
    Washington, D.C., The Phillips Collection; The Art Institute of Chicago and Boston, The Museum of Fine Arts, Cézanne: An Exhibition in Honor of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Phillips Collection, February-July 1971, p. 105, no. 75 (illustrated).
    Bronx Museum of the Arts, Paintings, Drawings and Sculpture from the Alex Hillman Family Foundation, April-May 1972.
    Newcastle upon Tyne, Laing Gallery and London, Hayward Gallery, Watercolor and Pencil Drawings by Cézanne, September-December 1973, p. 161, no. 51 (illustrated, p. 92).
    Tokyo, National Museum of Western Art; Museum of the City of Kyoto and Fukuoka Cultural Center, Exposition Cézanne, March-August 1974, no. 108 (illustrated).
    Roslyn, Nassau County Museum of Fine Arts, "Modern Masters" Paintings and Drawings from the Alex Hillman Family Foundation, December 1977-February 1978, no. 4 (illustrated).
    Kunsthalle Tübingen, Paul Cézanne: Das zeichnerische Werk, October-December 1978, pp. 149, 151 abd 322, no. 55 (illustrated).
    New York, Grey Art Gallery and Study Center and Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Museum of Art, Cézanne/Léger, February-December 1980.
    Liège, Musée Saint-Georges and Aix-en-Provence, Musée Granet, Cézanne, March-August 1982, pp. 130-131, no. 39 (illustrated).
    Jamaica Arts Center, Master Drawings from New York Private Collections, October-December 1982.
    Madrid, Museo Español de Arte Contemporaneo, Paul Cézanne, March-April 1984, pp. 216-217, no. 71 (illustrated).
    Newark Museum of Art, Modern Masters: Selections from the Collection of the Alex Hillman Family Foundation and the Newark Museum, June-September 1984.
    The Brooklyn Museum, Exhibtion of Works from the Alex Hillman Family Foundation, February1986-January 1986.
    The Brooklyn Museum, Modern Masters: French Art from the Alex Hillman Family Foundation Collection, June-August 1988.
    Phoenix, University of Arizona Museum of Art, Paintings and Drawings from the Alex Hillman Family Foundation, December 1991-May 1992.