Paktong, a name derived from the Chinese word meaning white copper, is a rare non-tarnishing alloy of copper, nickel and tin or zinc. Also known as 'Tutenag' or 'India metal' on account of its importation by the East India Trading Companies, it originated in China and although it first arrived in London in the 1720s, it was developed by the Chinese much earlier. The principal advantage of paktong is that while resembling silver, it is unaffected by atmospheric conditions, and can be easily cast, hammered and polished. Similar shell-based candlesticks are illustrated in K. Pinn, Paktong, The Chinese Alloy in Europe 1680-1820, Woodbridge, 1999, p. 89, pl. 45-46.