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The Russian vogue for stone-cutting led to the creation of some of the most beautiful objets d'art, more famously those in malachite. Malachite is a stalagmitic form of copper carbonate, and the technique used in the manufacture of objects and furniture is known as Russian mosaic. The malachite was sawn into very thin slices and then applied to a stone or metal ground, the veins being laid to form appealing patterns. The whole piece was then highly polished with the joints barely visible. Peterhof is the oldest stone-cutting factory, just a few miles from St. Petersburg, however the long distances from the mines and quarries meant that it was soon joined by the new imperial factory at Ekaterinburg, in the heart of the Ural Mountains. The third most famous factory was Kolyvan, in western Siberia, which specialised in colossal pieces made from the stones extracted from the Altai Mountains.