The marchand-éditeur L'Escalier de Cristal was established in 1802 by Madame Désarnaud, supplying clocks, lamps and other objets d'art to important European and Russian families, including Tsar Alexander III, Grand Duke Alexis Alexandrovitch and Demidoff families (W. Zeisler, L’objet d’art et de luxe Français en Russie (1881-1917), 2014, p. 341). From 1840, L'Escalier de Cristal were awarded medals at most of the international exhibitions. The firm became an icon of goût Parisien and luxury: 'Toutes les fortunes, tous les gens qui ont le discernement clair viennent Paris, de tous les pays du monde pour lui [Pannier] demander son gôut régulateur' (Exposition Universelle de Londres, Catalogue de la section française, 1862, p. 175). The firm often retailed exquisite furnishings and objects or commissioned manufacturers to supply individual components which were then assembled to the firm's own designs much in the tradition of the 18th century marchands-merciers. L'Escalier de Cristal collaborated throughout the 19th century with famous designers such as Edouard Lièvre and Maison Baccarat who were much sought-after by Russia’s elite clientele.