The Fifth Karmapa Deshin Shegpa (1384-1415) met with the Yongle Emperor in 1407; compare with another example depicting the Emperor seated at right, in D. Jackson, A History of Tibetan Painting, 1996, fig. 87, p. 175.
The painting is finely executed and displays some unusual elements, such as the treatment of the landscape. It is noteworthy that the Karmapa is depicted in much larger scale than the Emperor. The composition is related to a set of Karma Kagyu lineage paintings designed by Situ Panchen.