Until 1950, Anne Redpath painted mostly still-lifes and Border landscapes. The present work has a loose handling of paint and expressive use of palette knife that suggests this picture was painted in the early to mid-1950s. Redpath travelled extensively throughout Europe during the 1950s, painting in Spain, Portugal, Corsica, the South of France, Venice and on Gran Canaria. It has been suggested that the treatment of the buildings in Mediterranean would indicate that the work was one painted whilst Redpath was in Corsica in 1954.
Mediterranean was painted at a time when Redpath's reputation was firmly established. She had been exhibiting reguarly at Aitken Dott and at Reid and Lefevre in London. In 1952 official recognition was receievd when she became the first woman painter to become a fully elected member of the Royal Scottish Academy. Painted on a monumental board with a powerful and richly intense palette, Mediterranean reflects the confidence and assurity of her later work.