Clumber was built for the second Duke of Newcastle by Stephen Wright between 1767 and 1770. Set in a large park, designed in part by Capability Brown, it was a grand Palladian house near Worksop in Nottinghamshire. During the 1850s the house was enlarged and embellished in the Italianate style by the fifth Duke, who also added the serpentine lake and a double avenue of lime trees over three miles in length. In the late nineteenth century a fire destroyed the whole centre section of the house, which was soon rebuilt. There was a further, less serious, fire in 1912. In 1938 Clumber was stripped, the contents sold, and the house demolished. The intention was to build a new house on the site but the park was requisitioned by the War Department during the Second World War, and the rebuilding never took place. The park was purchased by the National Trust in 1946. However, much of the estate remains, including the outstanding Gothic Revival Chapel, Walled Garden and greenhouses, Stableyard and the estate village of Hardwick.