Joseph Justus Scaliger (1540-1609) was born in Bordeaux, the son of the great Italian scholar, Julius Caesar Scaliger (1484-1558). Joseph Justus became well known in his own right as a scholar, arguing among other theories that classical history should encompass not only the Ancient Greeks and Romans, but also include Persian, Babylonian, Jewish and Ancient Egyptian history. His edition of Manilius (1579), and his De Emendatione Temporum (1583), revolutionised received ideas of ancient chronology.
After his father's death he spent four years at the University of Paris, and in 1563 was recommended as a companion to the French nobleman, Louis de Chastaigner, of La Roche Pozay. It was under his patronage that Scaliger was able to travel extensively through Italy and England, and to continue his studies and writings. In 1593 Scaliger retired to the University of Leiden, where he remained until his death in 1609.