American Art-Union, New York, 1848 (as Torre di Schiavi).
Joseph Dart, Jr., Buffalo, New York, acquired from the above, 1848.
Mrs. Joseph Dart, Buffalo, New York, by 1864.
Private collection, circa late 1800s.
By descent to the present owner.
John M. Falconer, Letter to Jasper F. Cropsey, New York, September 4, 1848.
John M. Falconer, Letter to Jasper F. Cropsey, New York, October 29, 1848.
"Distribution," Transactions of the American Art-Union for the Year 1848, New York, 1849, p. 61, no. 192 (as Torre di Schiavi).
"The Fine Arts: The American Art Union, Third Notice," Home Journal, November 25, 1848, n.p.
W.S. Talbot, Jasper F. Cropsey: 1823-1900, Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, 1977, pp. 63, 311.
J.L. Yarnall and W.H. Gerdts, The National Museum of American Art's Index to American Art Exhibition Catalogues from the Beginning through the 1876 Centennial Year, vol. 1, Boston, Massachusetts, 1986, pp. 884, 889, nos. 21415, 21585.
C.C. Eldridge, "Torre dei Schiavi: Monument and Metaphor," Smithsonian Studies in American Art, Fall 1987, pp. 25-26.
New York, American Art-Union, 1848, no. 192 (as Torre di Schiavi).
Buffalo, New York, Young Men's Association, 1861, no. 186 (as Torre de Schiavi).
Buffalo, New York, Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, 1864, no. 100 (as Campagna, Near Rome).