Louis Bonaparte, born Luigi Buonaparte, was the younger brother of Napoléon I of France. The early part of his career was spent in the army and he served in Egypt with Napoléon, and he became a General by the time he was 25. He was made King of Holland on 5 June 1806 and he took his duties as ruler of Holland seriously, calling himself 'Koning Lodewijk I' and learning the Dutch language. Later he was given the title of 'Louis the Good' when he personally oversaw the relief efforts in the aftermath of two major incidents involving the city of Leiden: in 1807 the city was damaged when a ship filled with gunpowder exploded, and two years later the city was further devastated by floods. After the death of his elder brother Joseph in 1844, Louis was seen by Bonapartists as the rightful Emperor, although he took little action himself to advance the claim.
Another version by Aubry, also signed and dated 1806, is illustrated in K. Henninger-Tavcar, Miniaturporträts, Pforzheim, 1995, p. 134.