Professor David Marshall dates the present works to circa 1641, on the basis of transparencies, by virtue of the stylistic affinities they share with a dated work of that year by Codazzi and Gargiulo, formerly with the Matthiesen Gallery, London (D.R. Marshall, Viviano and Niccolò Codazzi and the Baroque Architectural Fantasy, Milan, 1993, pp. 99-100, no. VC23). While he accepts the attribution to Gargiulo for the figures, he has expressed reservations about Codazzi's authorship, noting that certain eccentricities such as the masks on the keystones and the rosettes on the arches point more towards one of Codazzi's Neapolitan followers, or an artist influenced by François de Nomé.