The extreme elongation of the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara appears to be a distinctive feature among a small group of Sui period gilt-bronzes, most of which display a tripartite foliate crown, and jewels which intersect at a large protruding boss at the navel or groin, as well as the long teardrop-and-chain pendants which are featured so prominently on the present figure. This group displays a range of complexity and definition of casting, from the more elaborate, such as an example in the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, to a smaller and simpler version in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, both illustrated by Sun Di, ed., Comprehensive Illustrated Catalogue of Chinese Buddhist Sculptures in Overseas Collections, vol. 4, Beijing, 2005, pp. 773 and 786 respectively. See, also, S. Matsubara, Chugoku Bukkyo Chokokushi Ron, The Path of Chinese Buddhist Sculpture, vol. 2, Tokyo, 1995, figs. 588c and 590c.