• Arts of the Samurai  auction at Christies

    Sale 2378

    Arts of the Samurai

    23 October 2009, New York, Rockefeller Plaza

  • Lot 1

    A Haniwa Terracotta Figure of a Seated Warrior


    Price Realised  


    A Haniwa Terracotta Figure of a Seated Warrior
    Late Kofun period (6th century)
    Seated on an oblong, high plinth pierced with two circular apertures at the sides, the feet resting on an extended foot rest, the left hand resting on a sword in scabbard slung from the waistband of the leather belt represented, tied in an x-shaped knot at the right and hung with a pouch in the left front, the right hand resting at the right waist above the skirt; the head applied with two long plaits of hair and crowned with a cup-shaped cap
    29¼in. (74.2cm.) high
    The result of Oxford Authentication Thermoluminescence Analysis Report no. N102d21 is consistent with the dating of this lot.

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    Haniwa, "clay ring," take their name from the unglazed clay cylinders placed on the large tomb mounds of the Japanese elite beginning in the fourth century. The tubular bases were sunk into the ground for stability. In the succeeding centuries, potters of the cylinders expanded into sculptures of humans, animals and household objects. The haniwa were fashioned by the coil and slab technique, smoothed with a bamboo comb and finished with a bamboo knife or spatula, then dried or fired at a low temperature, which resulted in their warm buff or reddish color.

    For a similar figure from Kameyama, Moka City, Tochigi Prefecture, see Miki Fumio, ed., Haniwa, Nihon no bijutsu (Arts of Japan) 19 (Tokyo: Shibundo, 1967), no. 61 and Miki Fumio, ed., Haniwa/Clay Figures (Tokyo: Kodansha, n.d. [ca. 1967--68]), no. 41.

    Pre-Lot Text


    Agamaki-kan: cord ring at the back of a helmet
    Aikuchi: a dagger
    Akoda-nari: melon-shaped helmet with depressed top, the rear part higher than the front, popular in the Muromachi period
    Aoi-mon: the triple hollyhock (aoi) crest of the Tokugawa family
    Ara-nie: large or coarse nie
    Ashi: "legs," steel structures extending downwards within the hamon
    Ashi-kanagu: fittings for suspending the sword from the belt
    Bohi: a long wide groove carved into a sword
    Bohi ni tsurehi: a long wide groove carved into a sword with a slender groove carved below and parallel to it
    Bonji: a Sanskrit character used as decoration; carved on swords, beginning in the Kamakura period
    Boshi: the hardened part of a sword's point; the tempering pattern on the blade's tip
    Bo-utsuri: pole-shaped utsuri; see also midare-utsuri
    Chikei: bright lines of nie following the grain
    Choji-midare: clove-shaped irregular and wavy tempering line
    Chokuto: straight, single-edged sword used until the mid-tenth century
    Chu-kissaki; chu-gissaki: medium-sized point
    Chu-maru: medium-rounded tempering line to the point
    Chu-sode: shoulder guards
    Chu-suguha: medium-width straight tempering pattern; see Suguha
    Daisho: "large, small," a pair of large and small objects, usually referring to swords and sword guards (tsuba) (the katana and wakizashi worn together as a set; also a set of two tsuba made for a daisho)
    Daienzan: hemispheric shape in helmets
    Daisaku: replicas of blades by a student authorized by a master smith
    Do: cuirass
    Do-maru: armor that closes along the right side of the cuirass and originally worn by foot soldiers; worn during the Muromachi period by commanders in place of heavier yoroi-type armor
    Eboshi: "crow cap," peaked cloth or paper court cap lacquered crow-color black worn until the mid-fifteenth century and adapted for helmets
    Efu no tachi: a tachi mounting style worn by a samurai of the Imperial guard
    Fuchi: collar fitted to a sword hilt next to the sword guard (tsuba)
    Fuchi-kashira: matching collar (fuchi) and pommel (kashira), one fitted to each end of a sword hilt
    Fukigaeshi: two turned-back flaps on either side of neck guard
    Fukiyose: "objects blown together by the wind"
    Fukura: the curve on the edge of the point
    Fukura-kareru: a non-rounded fukura
    Fukurin: edging or rim, often of gilt-copper
    Fumbari; funbari: Distinct tapering of blade from machi to tip
    Fusubegawa: lacing of brown smoked deerskin
    Futatsu-jibi: Double-groove along the length of the blade
    Gomabashi: fire tongs resembling chopsticks
    Gomai do: five-piece cuirass
    Gunome: an irregular tempering pattern with sharply pointed waves
    Gunome-midare: Irregular undulating tempering pattern
    Gusoku: "pieces"; set of armor
    Gyoyo: leaf-shape plates
    Ha: the cutting edge of a sword
    Ha-agari kuri jiri: uneven u-shaped tip; the point of deepest curvature that appears to be closer to the back edge of the tang
    Habaki: a metal sleeve that slides over the tang and fits securely at the juncture of the tang and the polished part of the sword, held in place by the notch at the back of the blade, thus giving the sword guard and hilt a buttress against which to rest
    Habuchi: the line of the hamon
    Hachi-maki: headband
    Hachi tsuke-ita: top plate of neck guard
    Hachiman-za: "Seat of [the war deity] Hachiman," the opening at the top of the helmet, also called a tehen
    Hada: "skin," referring to the polished surface of a sword
    Haidate: thigh guards
    Hakikake: swept or brushed tempering in the point
    Hako: box-form tempering pattern
    Hamachi: notch at the juncture of the cutting edge and tang
    Hamon: the temper line; the crystalline steel band defining the hardened edge
    Hanabishi: diamond-shaped latticework with flowers
    Handachi: tachi mounts used on a katana or wakizashi
    Harikake: technique of making ornamentation for exotic helmets similar to lacquered papier-mâché
    Hataraki: activity or work in the quenched area (yakiba)
    Hi: a groove carved in the side of a blade
    Higaki: crossed file marks resembling a fence
    Hineno-jikoro: close-fitting neck guard with lower edge given shape of the shoulders
    Hirazukuri: "flat construction," a flat sword without a longitudinal ridge
    Hiru-maki no tachi: tachi with scabbard and hilt bound with a strip of leather or other material under the lacquer that is bound in a spiral pattern
    Hishi-nui: decorative cross knotting
    Hita-tsura hamon: tempering pattern across the blade
    Hitsu-ana: one or two holes in a sword guard on each side of the central aperture through which the kogai and kozuka are fitted
    Ho-ate: half-mask
    Honkozane: small individually laced scales
    Honzukuri: the shape of a blade having a longitudinal ridge on either side; also known as shinogizukuri
    Horimono: "carved thing," decorative carving on the surface of a sword
    Hoshi: "stars," rivets on a helmet
    Hoshi-bachi: "star bowl," helmet bowl with the rivets protruding
    Hoso: flat or narrow
    Hoso suguha hamon: narrow and straight tempering line
    Hotsure: lines found in the tempered edge that stray into the ji; frayed edges
    Hyotan-gote: sleeves with gourd-shaped iron components
    Ichi: one
    Ichimai; ichimai boshi: a tip that is fully tempered
    Ikakeji: gold powder sprinkled over a lacquered surface before the lacquer is set hard
    Ikubi-gissaki: "boar's neck" tip; short tip relative to its width of the blade
    Inazuma: bright lines of nie crystals within and through the hamon; see also Kinsuji
    Inome: "boar's eye," type of piercing
    Iorimune: the peaked back of a sword
    Iriko: a wood piece into which a blade can be inserted, fitted into an older scabbard in order to preserve it
    Iriyamagata-jiri: an irregular triangular end to a tang
    Iro-e takazogan: variegated high-relief carving
    Iroiro odoshi: polychrome lacing
    Ishimeji: sword guard surface roughly hammered with a series of variously sized punches to give a texture resembling stone
    Ishizuki: the chape (metal mounting or trimming) of the scabbard of a tachi
    Itajikoro: neck guard of solid plates
    Itame: wood grain
    Itame-hada: wood grain forging pattern of a blade
    Itazane: single wide sheets, plates, scales
    Ito-zogan: flush inlays of fine gold wire
    Iriyama: asymmetrically pointed tang
    Iriyamagata: see iriyama
    Iyozane: rectangular scales
    Ji: the flat, or body of a blade
    Jigane: surface texture of steel
    Jifu: patches of nie on the ji
    Jikei: see chikei
    Jinie: nie appearing in the area between the longitudinal ridge and the hamon
    Jitetsu: alternate name for jigane
    Juka-choji: multilayered clove shapes, usually double or triple
    Jumonji yari: "cruciform" spear
    Juyo kodogu: "Important sword mountings," a ranking given by the N.B.T.H.K.
    Juyo token: "Important sword," a high ranking given a blade by the N.B.T.H.K.
    Kaen: Flame-shaped temper line on the point
    Kaeri: the turn-back in the temper line in a point
    Kaeritsuno, kaerizuno: the retaining hook on a scabbard used to retain it in the sash when the sword is drawn
    Kakinagasu: a groove on a cut-down sword which gradually narrows and disappears in the tang
    Kakitosu: a groove on a cut-down sword which continues off the end of the tang
    Kakudome: the squared end of a groove
    Kakuzukin: square-topped cloth cap
    Kama yari: "sicle" spear
    Kamasu: the name of a fish used to describe a straight cutting edge of the tip of a blade
    Kanagai: small and thin pieces of cut-metal foil
    Kanmuri: Japanese name for Tang-dynasty Chinese crown; see also token nari
    Kanmuri-ita: the vertical component of the uppermost plate on a shoulder guard
    Kanmuri-otoshi: blade with a ridge that passes through the tip
    Kanshitsu: "dried lacquer," cloth soaked in lacquer and covered over a wooden armature
    Kantei: the judgment or evaluation of an object by an expert or master
    Kanto tachi: swords with ring pommels
    Kao: a cursive monogram
    Kasane: thickness
    Kashira: see Fuchi-kashira
    Katabori: high-relief chiseling
    Katakiribori: carving with lines of varying thickness and depth in imitation of the strokes of a painter's brush
    Katakiriha chokuto: straight, single-edge blade flat on one side, ridged on the other side
    Kataochi gunome: gunome hamon with a distinctive slant
    Katana: a sword; in particular a sword of 2 shaku (60.6cm) or longer worn through the belt at the waist with the cutting edge up; frequently paired with a wakizashi as a daisho
    Katana-mei: signature cut into the side of a tang facing away from the wearer's body when the blade is slung cutting edge up
    Katte-sagari: slanted file marks on the tang
    Kawara kozane: "tile"-shape rectangular scales
    Kawari kabuto: exotic helmet, made fashionable in the Momoyama period
    Kawari nuri: a style of lacquering involving the use of several colors in a mottled pattern often used in decoration of scabbards
    Kawarigata tsuba: a sword guard (tsuba) of unusual shape
    Kawazu-ko: "tadpole shape" appled to choji hamon
    Kebori: thin engraved lines
    Ken: straight, double-edge blade based on Chinese prototypes; also a Buddhist sword, a physical manifestation of the power of Buddhism, usually seen emanating from a double thunderbolt (vajra) and frequently used as a symbol of the Five Wisdom Kings, Fudo Myoo being the best known
    Kengata-jiri: the end of a tang in the form of an isosceles triangle
    Kengyo: see Kengata
    Kesho-ita: narrow bands or struts at the bottoms of plates that are on the upper edges of shoulder, breast and back guards
    Kin: gold
    Kindei: gold powder mixed into lacquer
    Kinko: "gold craftsman," soft-metal-plate sword-guard maker
    Kinpun: gold powder
    Kinsuji: "golden lines," see inazuma and kinsen
    Kinzogan: gold inlay
    Kiri: Paulownia Imperialis, a tree with flowers and leaves adapted to form a crest of the imperial family
    Kiri: cut horizontally, referring to both file marks and the shortened end of a tang; see Kiri-jiri
    Kiri-ha: a blade section of chokuto with a wide shinogi-ji, hence a gently angled cutting edge
    Kiriha-zukuri chokuto: straight, single-edge sword with ridge parallel and next to cutting edge
    Kiri-jiri: horizontal form butt to the tang
    Kiri mon: a paulownia crest of two common types: go-san no kiri-mon using five- and three-bud stalks; shichi-go kiri-mon using seven- and five-bud stalks
    Kiritsuke: simulated by lacquer (kiritsuke kozane, kozane simulated by the application of lacquer to a solid plate)
    Kiritsuke zane: a plate cut and lacquered over in simulation of a row of kozane laced together
    Kiri-yasuri: horizontal file marks on a tang
    Kissaki: the triangular point of a sword
    Kissaki moroha-zukuri: double-edge-tip construction
    Kitae: forging pattern
    Kittsukezane; see Kiritsuke zane
    Ko: "old" or "small"
    Ko-choji: small clove pattern
    Kodachi: a short tachi made from the Kamakura period onwards, otherwise the word was used during the Edo period to describe wakizashi
    Kodogu: metal parts of a gaiso; usually referring to all metal fittings
    Koiguchi: Mouth of the scabbard or its fitting
    Kogai: hair pin, often matching a kozuka and carried in a slot in a sword scabbard on the opposite side from the wearer's body; see Wari-kogai
    Kogatana: small katana
    Ko-gunome: small gunome
    Ko-gusoku: "small pieces," of set of armor
    Ko-itame: small wood grain
    Ko-itame-hada: small wood grain forging pattern resembling pearskin
    Koji: section of helmet representing raised crest of hair on tokan-nari kabuto
    Kojiri: cap for the bottom of a scabbard, usually of metal or horn
    Ko-kissaki: small point
    Kokuho: a National Treasure
    Ko-maru: small rounded end of the tempering line in the point
    Komi (midare komi): continuation of a midare tempered edge into the point of a blade
    Ko-midare: small irregular tempering pattern
    Ko-nie: small and dense particles resembling snow
    Ko-notare: small wavy tempering pattern
    Konuka-hada: a finely textured surface which resembled the rice-flour face powder used by women; also known as nukame
    Koshi: lower edge
    Koshigatana: "waist sword," blade carried at the waist
    Koshirae: a complete sword mounting; see also Gaiso
    Koshizori: the curvature of a long sword where the height of the arc lies near the bottom half of the blade
    Kote: armored sleeves
    Koto: "old sword," those blades made before circa 1596
    Kozane: small scales
    Kozuka: "small hilt," the auxiliary knife and its handle which is fitted into the outside wall of a katana scabbard
    Kui-chigaiha; Kuichigaiba: hamon that is not completely aligned so is overlapped
    Kuri-jiri: "chestnut tip," a rounded end to a tang
    Kurikara: a Buddhist motif of a dragon entwined around a Buddhist sword; often used as a decorative carving
    Kurikata: the cord ring on the scabbard
    Kusazuri: protective skirt suspended from the cuirass of armor
    Kuwagata: decorative horns
    Kuwagata-dai: side-horn holder
    Kuyo: a crest of 9 spheres
    Kyubi no ita: iron plate loosely suspended at the left breast on an o-yoroi armor
    Mabisashi: brim
    Machi: the notches at the juncture between the blade and the tang
    Machi-okuri: a sword in which the machi have been moved up slightly
    Maedate: forecrest
    Maki-e: "sprinkled picture," general term for lacquer, especially, decorated with gold powder
    Maru-dome: the rounded grant surface
    Maru-mune: rounded back of the blade
    Masame: Straight-grain forging pattern
    Masame hada: forging pattern resembling straight wood grain
    Matsukawa-hada: Forging pattern resembling the bark of a pine tree
    Mei: signature
    Meito: famous sword
    Mekugi: a wooden peg or metal rivet securing the tang within the hilt of the sword
    Mekugi-ana: hole in the tang through which a wooden peg or metal rivet is passed
    Menpo: face mask
    Menuki: decorative metal ornaments on each side of a sword hilt to enhance the grip
    Midare: an irregular meandering tempering pattern
    Midare-ba (midare hada): irregular waves in the tempering pattern
    Midare-komi: the continuation of an irregular meandering tempering line into the point
    Midare-utsuri: an irregular cloudy pattern in the jihada near the ridge-line: a distinctive feature of Bizen-style blades
    Migakiji: highly polished finish; technique used on sword fittings
    Mitsu-mune: a triple-bevelled back of a sword; usually found on early Soshu daggers
    Mitsu-tomoe: triple-comma motif
    Mokko: four-lobed, like a cross-section of a type of gourd
    Mokume hada: forging pattern resembling burl wood grain
    Momonari kabuto: peach-shaped helmet, the precursor to the exotic helmet (kawari kabuto)
    Mon: heraldic crest of a family
    Monouchi: "cutting part" about a quarter way along the blade from the point
    Moroha: double-edged
    Morohazukuri: configuration of a sword with two sharpened edges
    Moto: bottom of cutting edge
    Motohaba: width at start of tempered edge
    Mumei: unsigned
    Munaita: upper breast plate
    Mune: the back of a blade
    Muneyaki: tempering along the back of a blade
    Munemachi: the notch at the juncture of the back of a blade and the tang
    Muzori: without curvature, referring to a sword
    N.B.T.H.K.: Nihon Bijutsu Token Hozon Kyokai (Society for the Preservation of the Japanese Art Sword), a Tokyo-based society that issues certificates of ranking on swords and fittings which have passed through a committee vetting; see Juyo token, Tokubetsu juyo token, etc. for blades and fittings
    Nagakawa: side pieces on armor
    Nagare-hada: a flowing grain in a sword blade
    Nagasa: The length of a blade measured as a direct line from the point to the notch on the back of the blade (munemachi)
    Naginata: a type of glaive with the shinogi extending to the point, the top half of the blade with a narrow back broadening into a normal shinogi below which are two characteristic naginata grooves
    Naginata-naoshi: a naginata blade converted to a sword
    Nakago: the tang of a sword blade
    Nakaguri wakidate: side crests with a cut-away center, resembling a crescent
    Nanako: "fish roe," a pattern of small raised dots made with a hollow punch on the plate of fittings
    Nanban: "southern barbarian," name for foreigners (Europeans who arrived by southern sea routes) and used to describe various domestic and export wares
    Naoshi: re-configured; for ex., naginata-naoshi is a naginata which has been shortened and mounted as a sword
    Nashiji: "pear skin," a lacquer surface of variegated gold lacquer created by layers of clear lacquer applied with gold powder
    Nashiji hada: a forging pattern resembling the skin of a pear
    Nie: shining particles in the tempering and forging areas of a blade that resemble crushed ice
    Niju-ha; Nijuba: a double tempering line, pattern
    Nimai do: "two-piece" cuirass, type of armor
    Nioi: a cloudy luminous effect in the hamon
    Nioi-guchi: fine particles of iron carbide on the boundary between the tempering pattern and ridge of the blade
    Nodowa: gorget, throat protector
    Notare: wavy or undulating tempering pattern in a sword blade
    Notare-ba: undulating pattern
    Notare-komi: a wavy undulating tempering pattern in the point
    Nunome-zogan: "cloth" inlay, gold or silver leaf burnished onto a cross-hatched iron ground like damascened metalwork
    O: "large," often a prefix for other descriptive terms, for ex. o-sode
    Obigane: encircling bands
    O-choji: "large clove," a very exaggerated choji hamon
    Odoshi: lacings of armor
    O-itame-hada: large wood-grain forging pattern
    O-kissaki: large point
    Okegawa do: "bucket-side cuirass," a cuirass made by riveting together horizontal plates to encircle the trunk
    O-midare: large midare
    O-mokume: large mokume
    Omote: the side of the blade facing away from the wearer's body when worn
    Origami: "folded paper," a written evaluation and statement of authenticity
    Oshigata: rubbing on thin paper, typically of a tang, in order to make a record of a signature etc.
    Oshitsuke: "to push out"
    Oshitsuke no ita: upper rear part of a cuirass (do)
    O-sode: large shoulder guards
    Osujigai: deeply sloping file marks
    O-suriage: tang cut down from its original length
    Ryo-hitsu: "both openings," the apertures either side of the central apertures of a sword guard through which the kogai and kozuka pass
    Sabiage: various powders, sometimes actual rust, mixed into lacquer to simulate the patina of age
    Sage: throat guard
    Sageo: cord
    Sahari: white metal alloy of copper, tin and lead
    Saihai: command baton with paper, leather or animal-hair streamers
    Saka: sloping; saka-choji is a pattern of sloping and irregular clove shapes
    Saka-gunome: sloping gunome
    Sakihaba: width before tip of blade
    Sakizori: a curvature that deepens toward the point of a blade
    Sanbon sugi gunome: "triple cryptomeria" pattern; a sawtooth tempering pattern with every third wave larger and more pointed
    Same: sharkskin or shagreen
    Sane; sane-ita: scales
    Sankaku yari: spear that is triangular in section
    Sankoken: a Buddhist ken sword with a three-pronged vajra hilt
    Saya: scabbard
    Sayagaki: inscription on the outside of a shirasaya
    Semegane: tachi scabbard ring
    Seita: back plate
    Sendan-no-ita: guard for the pit of the right arm, generally made of three plates or rows of scales connected by cords and backed with leather
    Seppa: thin brass, copper or gold washers often gilded or gold- and silver-plated, placed on either side of the sword guard when mounted on a sword blade
    Seppa-dai: "washer-platform," the central area of a sword guard around the nakago-ana covered by the washer
    Shakudo: alloy of approximately 95 copper and 5 gold with a raven-black patina
    Shibuichi: "one part in four," an alloy of copper with one part silver which patinates to a range of silver, grey and brown colors
    Shiho-jiro: arrangement of arrow shapes (shinodare) in groups of four sides of a helmet
    Shiinari kabuto: helmet with "sweet-acorn" (shiinari) shaped bowl
    Shikoro: neck guard; in compound words, jikoro
    Shimaba: a hamon with "islands" (shima) of activity
    Shingane: soft-core steel used in forging blades
    Shino: a splint
    Shinobi ana: an additional mekugi ana placed near the end of a sword tang
    Shinodare: type of riveted ornamentation of arrow shape
    Shino-suneate: splint shin guards
    Shinogi: longitudinal ridges on each side of a sword
    Shinogi-ji: ridge line of the blade
    Shinogi-zukuri: shape of a blade having a longitudinal ridge along either side and a transverse ridge at the tip; the most common shape of blade
    Shino-gote: splint sleeve guards
    Shinra-nari fukigaeshi: a style of fukigaeshi with the center of dyed leather surrounded by rows of hishi-nui, decorative cross-knotted braid
    Shinshinto: "new new sword," term referring to a renaissance in the late 18th century in which the ideals and quality of koto (old swords) could be recreated
    Shinto: "new sword," blades made after approximately 1595
    Shirake: poorly defined utsuri exhibiting a white sheen
    Shirasaya: a natural-wood hilt and storage scabbard, usually of magnolia
    Shishiabori: sunken relief carving
    Shobuzukuri: a sword without yokote shaped like an iris leaf
    Sho-to: the smaller of the two swords in a daisho; a wakizashi
    Shumei: lacquer signature on a sword, usually applied by an appraiser
    Soebi: see soehi
    Sode: sleeve
    Soehi: a secondary narrow groove running below and parallel to a wide groove
    Somen: face mask covering the entire face
    Sori: curve, especially of a sword blade; "zori" when used as a suffix
    Suemon zogan: an inlay affixed to the surface of a sword fitting by means of a peg or pin
    Sugake-odoshi: parallel double rows of lacing at intervals
    Sugata: the components of the configuration of a sword
    Suguha: a straight tempering pattern that is parallel with the sword's edge
    Sugu yari: straight spear
    Suji: ridges
    Suji-bachi: ridged bowl
    Suji-kabuto: ridged helmet, replacement from around the start of the fourteenth century for hoshi-kabuto
    Sujigai: strongly slanted file marks on a tang
    Suken horimono: carving of a straight, double-edged ken-type sword
    Sumi-hada: patches of deep dark steel on a blade
    Sunagashi: "drifting sand," sweeping lines of nie within the hamon
    Suneate: shin guard
    Suso-ita: skirt plate, bottom metal plates of armor
    Suriage: a shortened sword blade with all or part of the original tang cut off
    Tachi: a long slung sword, over 2 shaku (60.6cm), worn with the cutting edge downwards
    Tachi-mei: signature on the side of the tang away from the wearer's body when the sword is worn slung cutting edge down
    Takabori: high-relief carving
    Takanoha: file marks on the tang resembling the pattern found on hawk feathers
    Takazogan: high-relief details in metalwork
    Tame-nuri: red-lacquer base with a lightener layer of lacquer over it
    Tataki-nuri: roughened surface, lacquer technique
    Tate-age: upper portion of a cuirass immediately below the muna-ita and oshitsuke no ita
    Tanto: a dagger
    Tawara-byo: "rice-bale rivets," a row of metal decorative pieces along the side of the hilt of a tachi, in ancient times rivets with heads in the shape of rice bales for securing the blade
    Tehen or tehen no ana: opening at the top of the helmet, originally for the wearer's hair; see also Hachiman-za
    Tehen kanamono: ring of soft-metal bands surrounding the opening at the top of the helmet (tehen)
    Tekko: hand cover
    Tentsuki: "reaching for heaven," upward-reaching long leaf-like pieces forming a crest on a helmet
    Tobiyaki: "jumping heat treatment," well-defined areas of nioi or nie above the hamon
    Togari: pointed; point
    Togariba: (togari gunome): strongly pointed tempered edge
    Tokan nari kabuto: "Chinese crown," a type of helmet with high crown and raised flaps modeled on a crown of the Tang dynasty
    Tokubetsu juyo token: "Especially valuable sword," a ranking above Juyo token given by the N.B.T.H.K.
    Tokubetsu kicho token: "Especially valuable sword," a ranking given a sword by the N.B.T.H.K.
    Toran-ba: a billowing hamon like sea waves
    Toriizori: an even regular curve in a sword, like the top of a Shinto gate (torii)
    Tsuba: sword guard
    Tsugi-age: a sharply pointed tempering pattern to the point
    Tsuka: hilt or handle of a sword
    Tsumadori: style of armor lacing with separate colors that make triangular patterns at edges of shoulder guards (sode) and skirt (kusazuri)
    Tsume: claws
    Tsunomoto: bracket for forecrest (maedate)
    Tsutsu suneate: leg guards
    Tsutsu gote: a sleeve with hinged or sewn-together plates over the forearm
    Ubu: original condition, for ex. ubu nakago, an unshortened and original tang on a sword blade
    Uchidashi: embossed
    Uchigatana: "striking sword," a sword around 60cm common in the Muromachi period
    Uchinoke: short nijuba resembling a crescent moon
    Uchiwa: round fan
    Uchizori: blade with mostly straight back and cutting edge curving slightly toward top
    Unokubi: "cormorant's neck," shape of a tanto blade with a high shinogi extending to the point and a yokote
    Ura: the side of a sword worn next to the wearer's body
    Uragawara: a narrow strip across the mouth of the kozuka slot in a sword scabbard
    Ushirodate: rear crest
    Utsuri: a faint cloudy pattern in a sword blade often like a reflection of the tempering pattern as it is parallel to the hamon
    Vajra: thunderbolt; Hindu and Buddhist implement and symbol
    Waidate: right-side protector of armor
    Wakidate: side crests
    Waki ita: side plates
    Wakizashi: the shorter of the two swords (30-60cm long) comprising a daisho worn by a samurai
    Wari-kogai: a divided kogai which could be used as chopsticks
    Watagami: shoulder straps on armor
    Yagenbori: triangular-cut chiseling
    Yaki dashi: a straight tempering pattern near the hamachi
    Yakiba: "baked edge," the hardened strip along the edge of a sword blade produced by quenching
    Yakiotoshi: the hamon begins just short (usually 2-3cm) from the hamachi
    Yakitsune: Temperline on tip with no turnback
    Yamagane: "mountain metal," natural unrefined copper
    Yari: spear of a single point (futamato yari, 2 points; mitsumoto yari, 3 points); see Jumonji yari
    Yasurime: file marks on the tang
    Yo: leaf-shaped trails in isolated spots of tempering; see ashi
    Yodarekake: throat guard
    Yokohagi: horizontal plates riveted together, as in yokohagi do
    Yokote: line separating the point from the main part of the sword
    Yoroi: type of armor worn by high-ranking samurai from around the Heian period through early Muromachi period, usually comprised of a cuirass (do), a protective skirt (kusazuri), right-side protector (waidate), breast plates, neck and shoulder guards and helmet; larger than armor worn by foot soldiers, they are also known as o-yoroi ("great" armors) and designed for mounted archers
    Yoroidoshi: armor-piercing blade
    Zanguri: coarse pear
    Zanguri hada: coarse "pear skin"
    Zogan: inlay
    Zudate: upright headpiece
    Zukin: cloth cap
    Zukuri (tsukuri): construction, make
    Zunari kabuto: "head-shaped" (zunari) helmet