Naum Lvovich Aronson was born in Kreslavka, Russia (now Latvia) as one of ten children. He began sculpting at an early age and at 16 years old he went to Vilnius, Lithuania, to attend the drawing school of the artist Ivan Trutnev.
In 1891, Aronson moved to Paris to pursue his artistic development at the Ecole des Arts Decoratifs and at the Colarossi private art school. Following a two-year stint in the Russian army, Aronson returned to Paris to further his career. Citing the influence of Rodin, Michelangelo and various religious tales and figures, he refined his style and reputation as an important artist and was, by 1897, regularly exhibiting his work at the Salon de Champs de Mars where, shortly thereafter, he became a member of the jury. In 1900, Aronson's standing as an artist gained him a place in the International Art Fair, Exposition Universelle. Maintaining a close connection with Russia, he displayed his work and participated in civic design competitions in his homeland.
In 1940, as a result of the German occupation of France, Aronson and his wife settled in America, where he remained until his death in 1943.
Naum Aronson is most famous for the Beethoven monument in Bonn. Awarded the gold medal at Liege in 1906, his bust of Lenin was exhibited in the Soviet pavilion at the 1937 World Fair in Paris.