The decoration and shape of this vase are based on fifteenth century ewers such as the one illustrated by John A. Pope, Chinese Porcelains from the Ardebil Shrine, Smithsonian Institution, Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, 1956, pl. 54 (bottom right), and another illustrated in Sekai toji zenshu, vol. 14, Tokyo, 1989, p. 25, pl. 17.
For another Qianlong-marked vase of the same pattern and size, see Xu Huping, Treasures in the Royalty: The Official Kiln Porcelain of the Chinese Qing Dynasty, Shanghai, 2003, p. 239.
See, also, the example sold in our Hong Kong Rooms, 2 November 1999, lot 589.