From around 1550 it was a punishable offence in England to attend any church service other then those of the Church of England. Despite this, recusant chapels (from the Latin recusare: to refuse) were maintained at many Catholic manor houses, employing objects such as this chalice. As these objects were not produced to be sold they were rarely sent to Goldsmiths' Hall to be hallmarked, instead being either left unmarked, or, as with this example, marked with maker's mark only.
A chalice by William Rainbow, hallmarked for 1633 is illustrated in J. J. Buckley, Some Irish Altar Plate, page 58-59, number 1633H, plate XX, fig. 2. Unmarked examples of circa 1640 and circa 1650 and each with a cupid decorated knop are respectively illustrated in Michael Clayton, The Collectors Dictionary of the Silver and Gold of Great Britain and North America, second edition, Suffolk, 1985, page 81, fig. 115 and Vanessa Brett, The Sotheby's Directory of Silver, 1600-1940, London, 1986. page 125, number 416.