Armchairs such as the present type with enclosed crestrails are named nan guanmaoyi, or southern official’s armchair. The characteristic style of construction is depicting the image of an official’s hat, putou, as illustrated in Sancai Tuhui, which was published during Ming dynasty to demonstrate the power of privileged social rankings. Compare a few examples of the Southern Official’s Armchairs in the Beijing Palace Museum, illustrated in Furniture of the Ming and Qing Dynasties (I), The Complete Collection of Treasures of the Palace Museum, Hong Kong, 2002, P. 44-45, No. 30, 31. Also refer to Connoisseurship of Chinese Furniture, Ming and Early Qing Dynasties by Wang Shixiang, Hong Kong, 1990, for further discussions on the differing forms of chairs.