The bianfang formed a part of the qi tou, the headdress of Manchu ladies of rank. They were worn across the top of the headdress to stiffen the frame. It appears that a number of materials including jadeite, white jade, gold, and tortoise shell, were used in fashioning the bianfang, and a number of these examples were included in the exhibition, Qingdai Houji Shoushi, 'Jewelry and Accessories of The Royal Consorts of Ching Dynasty', Forbidden City Press, 1992, pp. 25-27, nos. 11-22. Compare also a similar aloeswood example inlaid with gold, pearl and jadeite, sold at Christie's Hong Kong, the Imperial Sale, 27 April 1997, lot 95.