At least two other works painted on copper by Calvaert depict this composition, with variation. These can be dated to circa 1590-95: one is in the Musei Capitonli, Rome, and the other in the Scottish National Gallery, Stourhead, Wiltshire. Unlike these versions, the figure of Saint Helena, who is holding the Cross, is added in the present composition. Calvaert was a Flemish painter from Antwerp, who settled permanently in Bologna in circa 1560. Oscillating between a mannerist aesthetic and classicism, his works are reflecting the influence of Correggio and Barocci. Calvaert played an important role as a teacher and in about 1575 he established an academy, teaching over 100 pupils, among them some of the most distinguished artists of the Bolognese School, such as Francesco Albani, Domenichino, and Reni.