Lots which are Art Treasures under the Art and Antiquities Act 1972 cannot be exported outside India.
Please note that lots are marked as a convenience to you and we shall not be liable for any errors in, or failure to, mark any lot.
Likely acquired by 1977
This Lot is Withdrawn.
Indian Miniatures from the Collection of Colonel RK Tandan (Lots 1-42)
Registered Antiquity – Non-Exportable
The Kalpasutra (the Book of Ritual) is an ancient canonical Jain text with three main sections: accounts of the lives of the 24 Jain jinas, a detailed biography of Mahavira (the 24th jina), and rules for ascetics and guidelines for the monsoon season. It is read and worshipped by the Svetambara Jains during the eight-day festival of Paryushan, which celebrates the rest Jain monks take during the rainy season.
Most of the following leaves from the Kalpasutra are scenes from Mahavira’s life. For his final rebirth, Mahavira was to be born from a Brahman woman named Devananda, but Indra was determined that jinas must be born from the warrior nobility. He enlisted the deer-headed general of his army, Harinegamesi, to switch the embryos between Devananda and Queen Trisala, the pregnant wife of King Siddartha. Queen Trisala then had fourteen auspicious dreams signifying that she would give birth to a jina. While in the womb, Mahavira did not cause Queen Trisala any discomfort, and only moved to reassure her that he was still living. At 33 years old, Mahavira renounced his possessions when his parents passed away, and was carried on a divine palanquin during the celebratory procession before turning to fasting and asceticism.
The Kalpasutra was first composed at the beginning of the common era and has been expanded over time. In the twelfth century, it was commissioned and distributed by King Kumarapala in an effort to propagate Jainism throughout what is now modern day Gujarat. These copies were reproduced on palm-leaf manuscripts with accompanying images, and as papermaking became prevalent in India, this more durable substrate was substituted, maintaining the palm-leaf's elongated proportions. These leaves, typical of fifteenth century Jain manuscripts, are lavishly laden with gold and blue pigments, suggesting the influence of Persian paintings that were in circulation at the time throughout the sultanate regions of Northern India.
There have been several exhibitions on Jain art in recent years, many of which have featured palm-leafs from the Kalpasutra, including: Victorious Ones: Jain Images of Perfection at the Rubin Museum, New York, 28 September 2009 - 15 February 2010 (P. Granoff, Victorious Ones: Jain Images of Perfection, Ahmedabad, 2009): Steps to Liberation at the Etnografisch Museum Antwerpen, 26 May - 15 October 2000 (J.V. Alphen, Steps to Liberation: 2500 Years of Jain Art and Religion, Antwerp, 2000), and a travelling exhibition, The Peaceful Liberators at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, New York, November 1994 - January 1996 (P. Pal, The Peaceful Liberators: Jain Art from India, New York, 1994).