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NIELS HENRIK DAVID BOHR (1885-1962)
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NIELS HENRIK DAVID BOHR (1885-1962)

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NIELS HENRIK DAVID BOHR (1885-1962)
On the Theory of the Decrease of Velocity of Moving Electrified Particles on Passing through Matter, offprint from: Philosophical Magazine, 6th series, vol. 25, no. 145, pp. 10-31. [London:] Philosophical Magazine, 1913. 8° (216 x 140mm). Diagrams in the text. Original printed wrappers (a little marked, chipped and torn with small losses, neat repair on verso of upper wrapper). Provenance: Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley (1887-1915, presentation inscription on upper wrapper 'Mr H.G. Moseley with the best compliments from the author').

FIRST SEPARATE EDITION. PRESENTATION COPY OF AN IMPORTANT EARLY PAPER TO BOHR'S FRIEND AND COLLEAGUE MOSELEY. Following the completion of his doctorate at Copenhagen University, Bohr travelled to Cambridge to continue his studies on electron theory under J.J. Thomson; unfortunately Thomson's interests had moved to other areas and he failed to appreciate the importance of Bohr's dissertation on the subject. Bohr then moved to Manchester in March 1912, to work with Ernest Rutherford, where 'from March to July 1912, working with utmost concentration, he laid the foundations of his greatest achievement in physics, the theory of atomic constitution' (DSB II, p. 240). During this period, Bohr performed 'a brilliant piece of work, which he -- working, as he said, "day and night" -- completed with astonishing speed', and was published in this paper: 'The problem was one of immediate interest for Rutherford's laboratory: in their passage through a material medium, \Ka\k particles continually lose energy by ionizing the atoms they encounter, at a rate depending on their velocity. Their energy loss limits the depth to which the particles can penetrate into the medium, and the relation between this depth, or range, and the velocity offers a way of determining this velocity. What Bohr did was to analyze the ionizing process on the basis of the Rutherford model of the atom and thus express the rate of energy loss in terms of the velocity by a much more accurate formula than had so far been achieved -- a formula, in fact, to which modern quantum mechanics adds only nonessential refinements' (op. cit, II, pp. 241-242). The scientist H.G.J. Moseley was appointed to a demonstratorship (which was later followed by a fellowship) in physics at the University of Manchester in 1910, where he began research under Rutherford, befriended Bohr, and 'developed into a rapid and skilful experimenter with unusual powers of continuous work' (ODNB); his work on X-ray spectroscopy enabled him to validate and extend aspects of Bohr's work. Moseley left Manchester in December 1913, pursuing his researches independently in Oxford before travelling to Australia in June 1914 to attend the meeting of the British Society for the Advancement of Science. On hearing of the outbreak of war, he returned to Britain where he was commissioned into the Royal Engineers; on 10 August 1915 he was killed in action in the Dardanelles. A RARE AND IMPORTANT ASSOCIATION; no other presentation copy of this offprint, or of other work inscribed to Bohr by Moseley, is recorded at auction since 1975 by ABPC.
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