About twenty examples of these lacquer-and-ivory bottles are known. As can be seen with the present example, the group is characterized by superb technical and sculptural control. They are usually composed of lacquer panels in ivory surrounds, but occasionally they have ivory panels set into a lacquer frame. They represent the finest of Japanese wares made for a collectors' market which developed after Japan opened its ports to international trade following the treaty of 1854. They also epitomize the finest lacquer carving for the snuff-bottle collector. For other examples, see L. S. Perry, Chinese Snuff Bottles. The Adventures and Studies of a Collector, p. 118, no. 113; Chinese Snuff Bottles No. 2, p. 18, plate D; Chinese Snuff Bottles No. 5, pp. 29 and 30; JICSBS, March 1975, p. 18, also illustrated in JICSBS, Autumn 1982, inside back cover; JICSBS, June 1975, pp. 3 and 4; JICSBS, June 1977, front cover and p. 18; JICSBS, March 1979, front cover; JICSBS, June 1981, p. 29; JICSBS, Spring 1982, front cover (one of the two bottles is also illustrated in B. Stevens, The Collector's Book of Snuff Bottles, no. 757); Chinese Snuff Bottles. An Exhibition from British Columbia Collectors, no. 6; Sotheby's, New York, 15 March 1984, lot 293; Sotheby's, London, 6 June 1988, lot 352; R. Kleiner, Chinese Snuff Bottles from the Collection of Mary and George Bloch, nos. 211-13, R. Hall, Chinese Snuff Bottles III, no. 89; and R. Kleiner, Chinese Snuff Bottles. The White Wings Collection, p.216, no. 318.