Images of luohan or arhats probably originated in Kashmir, and were first mentioned in the Mahayanavataraka which was translated into Chinese in AD 437; their names were later identified by the early Tang pilgrim monk Xuanzang in AD 654. According to early texts, these divine beings are advanced disciples of the historical Buddha Sakyamuni who epitomize the ideals of self-discipline and meditation. Having reached the end of the Eight-Fold Path, they have postponed Nirvana in order to remain in the world to protect the Buddhist law until the coming of the future redeeming Buddha, Maitreya. They are Angaja, Ajita, Vanavasin, Kalika, Vajriputra, Bhadra, Kanakavatsa, Kanaka Bharadvaja, Bakula, Chudpantaka, Pindola Bharadvaja, Pantaka, Nagasena, Gopaka, Abheda and Dharmata. For a discussion of images of the luohan, see W. Ho and W. C. Fong, 'Some Buddhist Images', Possessing the Past: Treasures from the National Palace Museum, Taipei, Metropolitan Museum, New York, 1996, pp. 210-7.