Paul Howard Manship (1885-1966)
Paul Howard Manship (1885-1966)

Diana and Actaeon

Paul Howard Manship (1885-1966)
Diana and Actaeon
Diana, inscribed 'PAUL MANSHIP/© 1921' (on the base)--inscribed 'C. VALSUANI. Fondeur.' (along the base); Actaeon, inscribed 'Manship/© 1924' (on the base)--inscribed 'C. VALSUANI FONDEUR' (along the base)
each, bronze with light brown and verdigris patina
Diana, 38 in. (96.5 cm.) high; Actaeon, 29 ½ in. (74.9 cm.) high; each, on a 54 in. (137.2 cm.) wooden pedestal
The artist.
Johnston L. Redmond, New York, acquired from the above, circa 1925-30.
Private collection, Washington, D.C., by descent.
Christie's, New York, 6 December 1985, lot 137.
Acquired by the present owner from the above.
The National Sculpture Society, Exhibition of American Sculpture, New York, 1923, p. 160, another example illustrated.
The National Sculpture Society, American Sculptor Series, Book 2: Paul Manship, New York, 1947, pp. 16-17, another example illustrated.
E. Murtha, Paul Manship, New York, 1957, pp. 14, 18, 161-62, nos. 138, 155, pls. 26-27, another example illustrated.
W. Craven, Sculpture in America, Cranbury, New Jersey, 1968, p. 567.
S. Rather, Paul Manship: Changing Taste in America, St. Paul, Minnesota, 1985, pp. 72-73, nos. 45-46, another example illustrated.
J. Manship, Paul Manship, New York, 1989, pp. 78, 100-03, 111, 113, 133, other examples illustrated.
H. Rand, Paul Manship, Washington, D.C., 1989, pp. 73-83, another example illustrated.
S. Rather, Archaism, Modernism, and the Art of Paul Manship, Austin, Texas, 1993, pp. 160-62, figs. 94-95, another example illustrated.
Sale room notice
Please note a previously applied opaque finish was removed from these works to expose a light brown and verdigris patina and they now appear different than in the catalogue image.

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Elizabeth Beaman
Elizabeth Beaman

Lot Essay

Paul Manship’s unique synthesis of the academic principles of sculpture with a fresh, innovative approach to form established him as one of the preeminent sculptors of the early 20th century. He was inspired by classic subject matter, which he presented through a distinctly simplified, modern style, distinguishing him from his contemporaries and garnering much critical acclaim and commercial success through his career. “His modernism lay in the greater importance of form than subject to the effect of his works and the provocative combination of stylization and naturalism; his conceptualized treatment of form, in particular, signified originality.” (S. Rather, Archaism, Modernism, and the Art of Paul Manship, Austin, Texas, 1993, p. 106). Diana and Actaeon are a superb and elegant manifestation of these principles that embody Manship’s unique and timeless aesthetic. The creation of the two sculptures engaged the artist between the years 1921 and 1924, and their completion triggered a major turning point in his career, which elevated him to a greater position within the context of American art.

Manship, who interpreted mythological stories in his work throughout his career, "contemplated the story of Diana and Actaeon as early as 1915, while living in Cornish, New Hampshire; he began to sketch this subject at that time, and it engaged him for a decade thereafter." (H. Rand, Paul Manship, Washington, D.C., 1989, p. 73) While the characters are explicitly related in the story, Manship developed Diana first, only to create Actaeon as a companion piece three years later. "These pieces represent Manship at his most characteristic, with their use of mythological subjects, nude figures in motion, stylized animals and plants, and highly decorative patterns in which the voids are as calculated for efforts as the solids. These two pieces have always been--with the Dancer and Gazelles--Manship's most popular works." (J. Manship, Paul Manship, New York, 1989, p. 101)

The story of the ill-fated pair is saturated with irony and action which provided Manship with various opportunities for expression and creativity. "Diana (identified with the Greek goddess Artemis) is the ancient Italian woodland goddess of hunting and archery, and the defense of all wild animals, children and weak things. In classical Greek literature she was characterized by a deliberately chosen and forcibly maintained virginity; she punished those who would violate this state. Actaeon was trained as a hunter by his father. While hunting on Mt. Citheron, he came upon Diana at her bath and offended her by seeing her naked. To prevent Actaeon's boasting of this exploit, Diana turned him into a stag, which his own hounds--trained to hunt and not recognizing him--devoured; in some versions of the tale Diana threw a deerskin over Actaeon with the same result." (H. Rand, Paul Manship, pp. 73-74)

The striking pair of sculptures, whose relationship to each other is the implied path of the destructive arrow, elicited immediate praise from critics and the public alike. Indeed, "Diana embodied the best of Manship's art, the highest aspirations of archaism and contemporary academicism, the promise for a legitimate and potent alternative to modernism, and an unsurpassable performance in bronzework. The piece left Walker Hancock, among others, dazzled by what was 'possibly the supreme example of the fluidity of line which Manship was able to achieve...Its lightness takes every advantage of bronze as a medium in contrast to many later works in which the emphasis is on solidity and volume.'" (H. Rand, Paul Manship, pp. 76-77)

With Diana and Actaeon, Paul Manship confirmed his reputation as one of the twentieth century's masters, and his "style attained both maturity and monumentality...Characteristically the composition is decoratively rhythmic, and 'its charm is that of a shrewdly organized silhouette.' Royal Cortissoz, reviewing the exhibition for the New York Herald Tribune, wrote of the aesthetics of Manship's style: 'An eclectic still, as he probably always will be, ineffably refined, sophisticated, a master of his craft through whom the influences of all the historic schools have seemed to flow, he yet preserves as his central merit a rich and altogether personal feeling for beauty...'" (W. Craven, Sculpture in America, Cranbury, New Jersey, 1968, p. 567)

Other known pairs of Diana and Actaeon are in the collections of the Carnegie-Mellon Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the Minneapolis Museum of Art, St. Paul, Minnesota; and the Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington D.C. Manship scholar Paul Vitry notes that an edition of 12 pairs were cast but most of the remaining examples are owned as single examples rather than as a pair. The present casts were commissioned directly from the artist by Johnston L. Redmond, one of the sculptor’s earliest patrons and a close personal friend. According to John Manship, the contemporary pedestals on which these examples stand may have been designed by his father and were most certainly supervised by him. In 1924, the models of Diana and Actaeon were enlarged to heroic proportions (7 ft.) for installation in Brookgreen Gardens, Murrells Inlet, South Carolina, and in 1939, a second monumental pair was cast in nickel bronze for the Norton family of West Palm Beach, now in the collection of the Norton Museum of Art, West Palm Beach, Florida. In 1925, Manship cast an edition of five 43 in. reductions of the monumental Diana and Actaeon. These five examples are in public collections. The present casts, and one other pair, are the only known paired examples of Diana and Actaeon in private hands.

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