AN EGYPTIAN PAINTED ALABASTER CANOPIC JAR LID IN THE FORM OF HAPI
PROPERTY FROM THE TOLEDO MUSEUM OF ART, SOLD TO BENEFIT THE ACQUISITIONS FUND
AN EGYPTIAN PAINTED ALABASTER CANOPIC JAR LID IN THE FORM OF HAPI

NEW KINGDOM, 19TH DYNASTY, 1295-1186 B.C.

Details
AN EGYPTIAN PAINTED ALABASTER CANOPIC JAR LID IN THE FORM OF HAPI
NEW KINGDOM, 19TH DYNASTY, 1295-1186 B.C.
5 7/8 in. (4.9 cm.) high
Provenance
with Mohammed Mohassif, Cairo.
Edward Drummond Libbey (1854-1925), Toledo, acquired from the above and gifted to The Toledo Museum of Art, 1906 (Accession no. 1906.18).
Literature
The Toledo Museum of Art, Catalogue of a Collection of Egyptian Antiquities, Brought Together and Presented to The Toledo Museum of Art by Mr. Edward Drummond Libbey, Toledo, 1906, p. 15, no. 18.
W.H. Peck, S.E. Knudsen and P. Reich, Egypt in Toledo: The Ancient Egyptian Collection at The Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo, 2011, p. 52.
Exhibited
The Toledo Museum of Art, Monkey Business, 2 July-30 August 2009.
The Toledo Museum of Art, The Egypt Experience: Secrets of the Tomb, 29 October 2010-8 January 2012.

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Lot Essay

An essential part of the mummification process involved removing the internal organs of the deceased and placing them in canopic jars. By the New Kingdom, the four jars were fashioned in the likenesses of the four sons of Horus, falcon-headed Qebeh-senu-ef, human-headed Imsety, jackal-headed Dua-mutef and baboon-headed Hapi, represented in the present example. Each god was meant to protect a particular organ, with the lungs being entrusted to Hapi.

The use of pigments mixed in a medium of beeswax and applied to the surface of alabaster was typical of the reign of Ramesses II and continued into the later Ramesside period. It is most frequently used on large stone vessels associated with the preparation of the mummy, shabtis, and, as here, canopic vessels. According to P. Lacovara, "The pigments included blue derived from powdered blue frit, green from ground malachite, yellow that was made from an arsenic sulphide known as 'orpiment,' red from iron oxide as in red ochre, and black from simple carbon black." (see pp. 124-125 in P. Lacovara, B.T. Trope and S. H. D'Auria, eds, The Collector's Eye: Masterpieces of Egyptian Art from The Thalassic Collection, Ltd).

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