Dame Barbara Hepworth Lot 07 ModBritEve
Dame Barbara Hepworth (1903-1975)
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Artist's Resale Right ("Droit de Suite"). Artist's… Read more THE TUTTLEMAN COLLECTIONDuring their marriage, Edna and Stanley Tuttleman curated one of the most eclectic and diverse collections of art, which spans multiple decades and a variety of media. Modernist sculpture masterpieces by artists such as Henry Moore and pop works by Roy Lichtenstein live side by side in a diverse arrangement that underscores the Tuttlemans’ love of art in many forms and traditions. Sculptures and paintings are represented as equally as acoustic and kinetic forms in the collection, with works by Alexander Calder and Henry Bertoia creating an atmosphere of pleasure that transcend the conventional and leans toward the unexpected. The Tuttlemans’ love-affair with all that is modern was articulated through a bold, salon-style installation in their family home that overtook every room and extended well into the surrounding landscape. Through this unique juxtaposition of works, the viewer gains a new appreciation for the relationships between works hanging side by side in close proximity to one another. The hanging is intuitive and not belabored - not overly planned or systematic. This style of installation underscores their love of the works themselves as well as their approach to collecting overall. The Tuttlemans sought out works by artists who resonated with them and purchased their work frequently. The Tuttlemans’ vast collection of sculpture displayed primarily outdoors was inspired by the family’s frequent stops at Storm King Art Center on their way to their Vermont home. While often times the sheer mass of a sculpture can limit its setting to the outdoors, many modern sculptors and collectors revel in the open air as a venue where the viewer is free to study the work from any distance and at any angle. From works by artists of American, Latin American, and British descent, Edna and Stanley Tuttlemans’ collection reveals a journey of collecting some of the finest examples of outdoor sculpture from all corners of the world. Displayed throughout the grounds of their Pennsylvania home, the Tuttlemans’ extraordinary collection occupied every garden, ledge and terrace creating a truly inspiring installation. Though their works are surrounded by the sublime and ever-changing environment, the love Edna and Stanley Tuttleman bestowed upon selecting a magnificent range of internationally-represented artists is unchanging. This passion and dedication seen not only in the Tuttlemans’ approach to collecting but also in their philanthropic efforts, was a hallmark of their marriage and a legacy of their life together. Edna and Stanley Tuttleman were committed to promoting the arts, culture and education in their community, and acted as benefactors to museums, universities, hospitals and temples in the Philadelphia area. The Tuttlemans funded, among others endeavors, The Tuttleman Contemporary Art Gallery at the Philadelphia Museum of Art; Franklin Institute’s Tuttleman Omniverse Theater; The Tuttleman Library at Gratz College; The Tuttleman Chapel at Temple Adath Israel; The Tuttleman Imaging Center at Graduate Hospital; The Tuttleman Learning Centers at Temple University and at Philadelphia University; The Tuttleman Auditorium and The Tuttleman Terrace at Institute of Contemporary Art; The Edna S. Tuttleman Directorship of the Museum at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts; and the Tuttleman Sculpture Gallery at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. These institutions that they fostered will stand as a beacon of their dedication to promoting the arts and education in their community.For further works from The Tuttleman Collection please see lots 132-144 in the Modern British & Irish Art Day Sale on 27 June 2017.
Dame Barbara Hepworth (1903-1975)

Curved Form (Bryher II)

Dame Barbara Hepworth (1903-1975)
Curved Form (Bryher II)
signed, dated and numbered 'Barbara Hepworth 1961 6/7' (on the top of the base) and stamped with the foundry mark 'Morris/Singer/FOUNDERS/LONDON' (on the back of the base)
bronze with a green and brown patina and copper strings
82¾ in. (210.2 cm.) high, including the base
This work is recorded as BH 305.
with Gimpel Fils, London, January 1969, where purchased by Mrs M.S. Davidson, New York.
with Gimpel & Weitzenhoffer, New York.
Private collection, New York.
James Goodman.
with Lyn Segal Distinctive Fine Art & Sculpture, Colorado, June 1986, where purchased by the present owners.
J.M. Nash, '"Reclining Form" carved from small cliff', Yorkshire Post, 11 May 1962, as 'Bryher II'.
Exhibition catalogue, Barbara Hepworth: An Exhibition of Sculpture from 1952-1962, London, Whitechapel Art Gallery, 1962, n.p., no. 56, another cast illustrated.
Exhibition catalogue, Barbara Hepworth: sculpture and drawings, Zurich, Gimpel Hanover Galerie, 1963, n.p., no. 8, another cast illustrated.
Exhibition catalogue, Barbara Hepworth Sculpture and Drawings, London, Gimpel Fils, 1964, n.p., no. 8, another cast illustrated.
J. Fitzmaurice Mills, 'Barbara Hepworth - at the Rietveld Pavilion, Kröller-Müller Museum', Connoisseur, Vol. 159, August 1965, p. 242, no. 642, illustrated.
Exhibition catalogue, Barbara Hepworth, Turin, Galleria Civica d'Arte Moderna, 1965, pp. 104-105, no. 44, another cast illustrated.
Exhibition catalogue, Barbara Hepworth, New York, Marlborough Gerson-Gallery, 1966, n.p., no. 6, another cast illustrated.
Exhibition catalogue, Barbara Hepworth Recent Work: Sculpture, Paintings, Prints, Marlborough Gallery, London, 1970, pp. 7, 12, no. 2, another cast illustrated.
Exhibition catalogue, Open Air Sculpture II, London, Gimpel Fils, Syon Park (The Gardening Centre), 1970, n.p., no. 9, another cast illustrated.
A. Bowness (ed.), The Complete Sculpture of Barbara Hepworth 1960-69, London, 1971, pp. 10, 12, no. 305, pls. 2 and 47, another cast illustrated.
F. Ruhrmund, 'Hepworth dominates Penwith arts show', Western Morning News, 9 October 1972, as 'Curved Form (Bryher)'.
Exhibition catalogue, Barbara Hepworth, London, Gimpel Fils, 1972, n.p., no. 16, another cast illustrated.
R. Cork, 'Hepworth: Cornish light and rhythm of the sea', Evening Standard, 21 May 1975, another cast illustrated.
V. Raynor, 'Art: the Sculpture of a Perfectionist', The New York Times, 8 May 1979.
Exhibition catalogue, Barbara Hepworth Carvings and Bronzes, New York, Marlborough Gallery, 1979, pp. 16-17, no. 20, another cast illustrated.
A.M. Hammacher, Barbara Hepworth, London, 1987, pp. 140-141, another cast illustrated.
M. Gale and C. Stephens, Barbara Hepworth: Works in the Tate Gallery Collection and the Barbara Hepworth Museum St Ives, London, 1999, pp. 212, 214, 248.
S. Bowness (ed.), Barbara Hepworth The Plasters: The Gift to Wakefield, Farnham and Burlington, 2011, pp. 32-33, 60-62, 93, pls. 17, 55, 56 and illustrated inside the front cover, another cast illustrated.
S. Bowness (ed.), Barbara Hepworth Writings and Conversations, London, 2015, p. 233.
London, Whitechapel Art Gallery, Barbara Hepworth: An Exhibition of Sculpture from 1952-1962, May - June 1962, no. 56, another cast exhibited.
Zurich, Gimpel Hanover Galerie, Barbara Hepworth: sculpture and drawings, November 1963 - January 1964, no. 8, another cast exhibited.
London, Gimpel Fils, Barbara Hepworth Sculpture and Drawings, June 1964, no. 8, another cast exhibited.
Copenhagen, British Council, Kunstforeningen, Barbara Hepworth, September - October 1964, no. 25, another cast exhibited.
Stockholm, Moderna Museet, Barbara Hepworth, November - December 1964, no. 27, another cast exhibited.
Helsinki, Ateneum, Barbara Hepworth: sculptures and drawings, January - February 1965, no. 25, another cast exhibited.
Oslo, British Council, Kunstnernes Hus, Barbara Hepworth: sculpture and drawings, 1935-65, March 1965, no. 25, another cast exhibited.
New York, Marlborough-Gerson Gallery, Barbara Hepworth, April - May 1965, no. 6, another cast exhibited.
Otterlo, Rijksmuseum Kröller-Müller (Rietveld Pavilion), Sculptures and drawings by Barbara Hepworth, May - July 1965, no. 31, another cast exhibited.
Turin, Galleria Civica d'Arte Moderna, Barbara Hepworth, October - November 1965, no. 44, another cast exhibited.
Basel, Kunsthalle, Barbara Hepworth, September - October 1965, no. 22, another cast exhibited: this exhibition travelled to Karlsruhe, Badischer Kunstverein, February - March 1966; and Essen, Museum Folkwang, April - June 1966.
New York, Marlborough Gerson-Gallery, Barbara Hepworth, April - May 1966, no. 6, another cast exhibited.
London, Tate Gallery, Barbara Hepworth, April - May 1968, no. 115.
London, Marlborough Gallery, Barbara Hepworth Recent Work: Sculpture, Paintings, Prints, February - March 1970, no. 2, another cast exhibited.
London, Gimpel Fils, Syon Park (The Gardening Centre), Open Air Sculpture II, Summer 1970, no. 9, another cast exhibited.
St Ives, Penwith Galleries, Penwith Society of Arts Exhibitions, Autumn and Winter 1971 - Spring, Summer and Autumn 1972, no. 1, another cast exhibited.
London, Gimpel Fils Gallery, Barbara Hepworth, October - November 1972, no. 16, another cast exhibited.
New York, Marlborough Gallery, Barbara Hepworth: Carvings and Bronzes, May - June 1979, no. 20, another cast exhibited.
Special notice
Artist's Resale Right ("Droit de Suite"). Artist's Resale Right Regulations 2006 apply to this lot, the buyer agrees to pay us an amount equal to the resale royalty provided for in those Regulations, and we undertake to the buyer to pay such amount to the artist's collection agent. These lots have been imported from outside the EU for sale using a Temporary Import regime. Import VAT is payable (at 5%) on the Hammer price. VAT is also payable (at 20%) on the buyer’s Premium on a VAT inclusive basis. When a buyer of such a lot has registered an EU address but wishes to export the lot or complete the import into another EU country, he must advise Christie's immediately after the auction. This lot will be removed to Christie’s Park Royal. Christie’s will inform you if the lot has been sent offsite. Our removal and storage of the lot is subject to the terms and conditions of storage which can be found at Christies.com/storage and our fees for storage are set out in the table below - these will apply whether the lot remains with Christie’s or is removed elsewhere. Please call Christie’s Client Service 24 hours in advance to book a collection time at Christie’s Park Royal. All collections from Christie’s Park Royal will be by pre-booked appointment only. Tel: +44 (0)20 7839 9060 Email: cscollectionsuk@christies.com. If the lot remains at Christie’s it will be available for collection on any working day 9.00 am to 5.00 pm. Lots are not available for collection at weekends.

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William Porter
William Porter

Lot Essay

In 1961 Hepworth bought the Palais de Danse, an old cinema on the east side of St Ives' Barnoon Hill - just across the road from her existing Trewyn Studio. Changes to the sculptor's working practice had prompted the need for extra space; not only had Hepworth started to experiment with bronze, but increasing numbers of public commissions demanded that she take on permanent assistants. Choosing to keep both the dance floor and the stage upon which the cinema screen was mounted, Hepworth used the Palais de Danse for the construction of her new large-scale bronze works, including Curved Form (Bryher II). Recalling this period, Hepworth claimed that it was a time of 'tremendous liberation, because I at last had space and money to work on a much bigger scale. I had felt inhibited for a very long time over the scale on which I could work. It's so natural to work large - it fits one's body' (B. Hepworth, quoted in A. Bowness (ed.), The Complete Sculpture of Barbara Hepworth 1960-69, London, 1971, p. 7).

Curved Form (Bryher II) belongs formally to Hepworth's Single Form series, which she first approached in the 1930s and developed throughout her career. This group of works - first in wood, and marble and later in bronze - has become enmeshed with the story of the much-respected second secretary general of the United Nations, Dag Hammarskjöld, and his relationship with Hepworth. The sculptor found in him a kindred spirit, sharing political views on the responsibility of the artist in the community and more broadly the individual within society. Similarly, Hammarskjöld was a great admirer of Hepworth's work and bought the version of Single Form which Hepworth carved out of sandalwood, 1937-38 (BH 103), at the artist's 1956-57 exhibition at the Martha Jackson Gallery in New York. The two corresponded from 1956 to 1961 and in a letter to Hepworth dated 11 September, 1961, Hammarskjöld wrote about the sculpture, 'I have now had it before me a couple of weeks, living with it in all shades of light, both physically and mentally, and this is the report: it is a strong and exacting companion, but at the same time one of deep quiet and timeless perspective in inner space. You may react at the word exacting, but a work of great art sets its own standard of integrity and remains a continuous reminder of what should be achieved in everything' (D. Hammarskjöld quoted in M. Fröhlich, 'A Fully Integrated Vision: Politics and the Arts in the Dag Hammarskjöld-Barbara Hepworth Correspondence' in Development Dialogue (no. 44), Uppsala, 2001, p. 56).

In 1961 Hepworth was in the process of carving a new version out of what she considered to be the most exquisite piece of walnut, when she heard the news of Hammarskjöld's tragic death in a plane crash (a fate that had also befallen her first son, Paul Skeaping, in 1953). Grief-stricken, she added a subtitle to the walnut version, calling it Single Form (September), 1961 (BH 312) after the month Hammarskjöld died. She then made a 10-foot version in bronze as a way of coping with the loss, which can now be found in London's Battersea Park, Single Form (Memorial), 1961-62 (BH 314).

Shortly after Hammarskjöld's death, the United Nations decided to commission a sculpture in his memory, to be sited at the United Nations Plaza in New York. They asked Hepworth to undertake the commission. During his lifetime, Hammarskjöld perceived the artistic environment of the United Nations as part of the spiritual enrichment of those using the building, and had wanted Hepworth to work on a scheme for the new United Nations building in New York. Thus, when recalling the process of the commission, Hepworth stresses that it began with the present work, 'Bryher II was really the beginning of the work. Dag Hammarskjöld wanted me to do a scheme for the new United Nations building so my mind dwelt on it, and we got as far as this. We talked about the nature of the site, and about the kind of shapes he liked we discussed our ideas together but hadn't reached any conclusion' (B. Hepworth, quoted in A. Bowness, loc. cit.). Hepworth eventually chose to make a new version of Single Form, and delivered to the United Nations her largest ever sculpture, a staggering 21-foot bronze version, 1961-64 (BH 325).

Curved Form (Bryher II) is pierced with a large hole, an essential element in Hepworth's sculpture from 1932 onwards. Hepworth used holes as a device for creating abstract form and space, and to unite the front and the back of the work. In her autobiography, Hepworth remembers the sensation of moving physically over the landscape as she drove across West Riding with her father in his car, particularly 'through hollows feeling, touching, seeing'. 'The sensation has never left me', Hepworth claims, and as we witness the landscape pouring through the central hollow of Curved Form (Bryher II), this is evident (see B. Hepworth, Barbara Hepworth: A Pictorial Autobiography, Bath, 1970, p. 9). Hepworth consistently pointed to the significance that landscape and its interaction with human beings had for her as a sculptor, claiming her works 'were experiences of people the movement of people in and out is always a part of them' (B. Hepworth, quoted in A. Bowness, op. cit., p. 12). By using bronze, Hepworth was able to make forms that were far more open and fluid than anything she had ever done in wood or stone.

The soaring bronze of Curved Form (Bryher II), with its subtly modulated thickness and tapered base, Hepworth strung with copper wire. Using strings allowed Hepworth to introduce dynamic shapes into her work, and to explore the relationship of the space between the forms. Hepworth had begun this practice in 1939 and, whilst it was certainly influenced by Moore's strung works of the late 1930s, the work of Naum Gabo was more significant. Gabo and Hepworth were particularly close during the 1930s and 1940s, and like Gabo's use of nylon thread, Hepworth's use of strings can be related to her interest in mathematical models. This interest was shared with many artists during the 1930s, whose use of them for artistic purposes reflected a desire for a modernist synthesis of science and art. However, as time went on, Hepworth's use of strings moved away from purely modernist principles and became better associated with her growing consciousness of the landscape: 'The strings were the tension I felt between myself and the sea, the wind or the hills', she claimed (B. Hepworth, quoted in H. Read, Barbara Hepworth: carvings and drawings, London, 1952, section 4).

The island of Bryher is the smallest of the five inhabited islands of Scilly, an archipelago off the southwestern tip of the Cornish peninsula, and thus the subtitle evokes a local place for Hepworth. It puts the present work with a whole sequence of Hepworth's landscape sculptures which have subtitles like Oval Form (Trezion), 1961-3 (BH 304) (see lot 10); Sea Form (Atlantic), 1964 (BH 362); and Rock Form (Porthcurno), 1964 (BH 363). Hepworth always added the titles later, claiming, 'when I've made something, I think: where did I get that idea from? And then I remember'. About the present work, Hepworth explains 'Bryher is being in a boat, and sailing round Bryher, and the water, the island, the movement of course. If I experience something bodily like that, I often get an idea for a sculpture. Bryher is a relationship between the sea and the land' (B. Hepworth, quoted in A. Bowness, op. cit., p. 12).

Other casts of the present work are in the collection of the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Sanfrancisco; the Mary and Leigh Block Museum of Art, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois; the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington; and the De Doelen Concert Hall, Rotterdam.

A cast was sold in these Rooms on 10 July 2013 for £2,413,875.

We are grateful to Dr Sophie Bowness for her assistance with the cataloguing apparatus for this work. Dr Sophie Bowness is preparing the revised catalogue raisonné of Hepworth’s sculpture.

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