According to Babette Bohn (op. cit.), this is probably the final study for Ludovico's fresco in San Girolamo della Certosa, Bologna. An earlier study for the fresco is in the Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth (ibid., no. 53, ill.). The fresco, which was originally part of a larger cycle, has variously been dated to circa 1593-95 by Bodmer, 1589 by Street, circa 1590 by Feigenbaum, and circa 1588-1590 by Bohn (see ibid.).