This lively study was made by Castello in preparation for his early painting The Adoration of the Shepherds in the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, dated 1582 (inv. 37.1929; see F. Zeri, Italian Paintings in the Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore, 1976, no. 299, ill.). The sheet was kept in the studio, dated 1583, and reused for similar paintings now in Savona and Detroit. In its organized structure, the drawing still shows the influence of Castello's first master Andrea Semino.