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Frederick Carl Frieseke (1874-1939)
Foxgloves
signed 'F.C. Frieseke' (lower right)
oil on canvas
26 x 32 in. (66 x 81.3 cm.)
Painted circa 1912-13.
Provenance
Vose Galleries, Boston, Massachusetts.
Mr. and Mrs. Julian S. Carr, Sr.
Private collection, California.
Spanierman Gallery, New York.
Acquired by the present owner from the above, 1994.
Literature
Grand Central Art Galleries, Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture Contributed by the Founders of the Galleries, exhibition catalogue, New York, 1924, n.p., no. 47, illustrated.
Exhibited
New York, Macbeth Gallery, Exhibition of Paintings by F.C. Frieseke, February 25-March 10, 1913.
Detroit, Michigan, Detroit Museum of Art, and elsewhere, Paintings by Frederick C. Frieseke (17 Paintings Exhibited in Conjunction with 23 Paintings by Leonard Ochtman, N.A.), March 18-April 4, 1913.
Los Angeles, California, Fine Arts Gallery, Museum of History, Science and Art, Opening Exhibition, November, 1913, no. 35.
New York, Grand Central Art Galleries, Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture Contributed by the Founders of the Galleries, June-October, 1924, no. 47.

Lot Essay

Executed at the height of his career, Foxgloves, exemplifies Frederick Carl Frieseke's most beautiful works. Frieseke's garden in Giverny, the setting for a number of his finest pictures, is depicted with dazzling color and vitality. The vibrant colors and patterns of Foxgloves make this a superb example of Frieseke's oeuvre.

In the summer of 1906, Frieseke settled in Giverny where the sunshine and freedom to paint as he wanted inspired him to remain for almost two decades. Giverny was an artist colony led by French Impressionist Claude Monet that had been favored by American artists including Theodore Butler, Willard Metcalf, Richard Miller, Theodore Robinson and Guy Rose. Notice of the group of American Impressionists abroad appeared swiftly in the press. In October 1887, a critic for The Art Amateur suggested that the development of an Impressionist expatriate style was immediate and profound: "Quite an American colony has gathered, I am told, at Givernay[sic], seventy miles from Paris, on the Seine, the home of Claude Monet, including our Louis Ritter, W. L. Metcalf, Theodore Wendell[sic], John Breck, and Theodore Robinson of New York. A few pictures just received from these young men show that they have got the blue-green color of Monet's impressionism and 'got it bad.'" ("Boston Art and Artists," The Art Amateur, 17, no. 5, October 1887, p. 93, as quoted in R. H. Love, Theodore Earl Butler: Emergence from Monet's Shadow, Chicago, Illinois, 1985, p. 59)

After arriving in Giverny, Frieseke lived in Theodore Robinson's former house, next door to Monet. The intricate and extravagant garden of the French Impressionist painter had a significant impact on Frieseke while Frieseke's own house also had a "beautiful old garden, running riot with flowers, vines and trees." (W.H. Gerdts, Monet's Giverny: An Impressionist Colony, New York, 1993, p. 172) His work in Giverny often incorporated his garden either as seen through the window of an interior or the as backdrop for a model. "Frieseke's garden paintings reflect the simple, though hardly rustic, everyday life of relaxed enjoyment of sunshine and flowers and reading. Summertime leisure dress was the norm; for the models perhaps a kimono." (Frederick Carl Frieseke: The Evolution of an American Impressionist, p. 88)

In Foxgloves a woman stand in a garden, enveloped in variegated flowers and verdant foliage. Conveying a romantic parallel between the woman and flowers, he blends her into the background essentially placing a "flower" within the flowers. Frieseke noted, "My one idea is to reproduce flowers in sunlight. I do not suggest detail by form, [but use] strokes of color in oil to produce the effect of vibration, completing as I go...If you are looking at a mass of flowers in the sunlight out of doors you see a sparkle of spots of different colors--then paint them that way...Often one obtains accidental notes out of doors which really construct a picture...I usually make my first notes and impressions with dashes of tempera, then I paint over this with small strokes as I have to keep it as pure as possible or the effects of brilliancy will be lost." (C.T. MacChesney, "Frieseke Tells Some of the Secrets of His Art," New York Times, June 7, 1914 as quoted in Frederick Carl Frieseke: The Evolution of an American Impressionist, p. 88)

Frieseke's high-keyed palette and thick impasto are masterfully executed in this work. Through deft handling of steady yet short, broken brushstrokes, Foxgloves becomes a brilliant visual display of color and light. This sophisticated handling of paint combined with a jewel-like palette emphasizes Frieseke's effect of a sun-filled day. In Foxgloves Frieseke blends rich greens, reds and blues with pastel pinks, pale blues and light greens set off by dashes of white. Bathing the work with intense sunlight, Frieseke does not diffuse the scene but imbues the lush garden with form and texture. Dr. William H. Gerdts has noted that "it was Frieseke who introduced into the repertory of Giverny painting the concern for rich, decorative patterns, related to the art of Edouard Vuillard, Pierre Bonnard, and the other Nabi painters. There are patterns of furniture, patterns of parasols, patterns of fabric and wall coverings, patterns of light and shade, and patterns of flowers, all played off one another in bright sunshine...." (Monet's Giverny: An Impressionist Colony, p. 172) In Foxgloves as in his other works from this period, the artist's dappled use of sunlight, the direction and texture of his brushstrokes and contrasts of light and shadow create a patterned harmony reminiscent of the Post-Impressionists.

All of Frieseke's artistic devices come together in this work to form a highly successful, complete, composed and balanced composition. In the present work, one can quickly identify Frieseke's adherence to the academic "principles of reduction of visual detail for the purpose of clarifying and unifying the expressive whole." (B.L. Summerford, A Retrospective Exhibition, San Francisco, California, 1982, p. 17) Foxgloves is a masterful example of Frieseke's garden paintings and conveys the full vision of the artist's lively Impressionist style. The vitality of the garden and the quiet moment of the model is poignantly recorded as he successfully creates an idyllic image that embraces the scene in its most beautiful and picturesque form.

This painting will be included in the forthcoming catalogue raisonn/ae of Frieseke's work being compiled by Nicholas Kilmer, the artist's grandson, and sponsored by Hollis Taggart Galleries, New York.

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