Jean-Etienne Liotard (Swiss, 1702-1789)
Jean-Etienne Liotard (Swiss, 1702-1789)
Jean-Etienne Liotard (Swiss, 1702-1789)
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Jean-Etienne Liotard (Swiss, 1702-1789)

Details
Jean-Etienne Liotard (Swiss, 1702-1789)
A young gentleman in blue coat, wearing the badge of the Order of Malta
Signed and dated on the counter-enamel ‘pt. liotard / 1749’
Enamel on copper
Oval, 49 mm. high, cartouche-shaped ormolu frame with tied ribbon surmount
Provenance
Edouard Warneck (1834-1924) Collection, Paris, by 1911.
His son-in-law, Arthur Sambon (1867-1947), Paris by 1923/1924.
E. Warneck Collection, Paris; Part IV, Leo Schidlof’s Kunstauktionshaus, Vienna, 18 November 1926, lot 34.
Friedrich Neuburg Collection, Litomerice, Moravia; Part I, Hôtel Drouot, 27 March 1939, lot 77 (41,000 FF).
Ernst Holzscheiter Collection, Meilen (inv. nos. MD/0180 and 363).
Literature
Schidlof 1911, p. 381, pl. IV (as 'M. de Marigny').
Clouzot 1923, p. 57, illustrated p. 56.
Clouzot 1924, p. 130.
Clouzot 1928, p. 123, illustrated pl. VII.
Long 1929, p. 275.
Trivas 1940, illustrated.
von der Mühll 1947, p. 42, illustrated in colour p. 44, no. 11.
Schneeberger 1958, pp. 151, 153 footnote 257, illustrated figs. 53 and 54.
Schidlof 1964, I, p. 507, II, p. 999, illustrated IV, pl. 372, fig. 753 (as the Marquis de Marigny and described as ‘excellent’)
Foskett 1972, II, p. 64, illustrated pl. 212, fig. 535 (as 'Monsieur de Marigny').
Loche/Roethlisberger 1978, no. S2, illustrated p. 125 (the property title erroneous).
Roethlisberger/Loche 2008, I, p. 369, no. 165 (as a ‘jeune chevalier de l’ordre de Malte’), II, illustrated fig. 273.
Exhibited
Paris 1923, no. 237 (lent by Arthur Sambon).
Paris 1925.
Geneva 1956, no. 276, illustrated (as a presumed portrait of the Marquis de Marigny).
Zurich 1957-58 and 1961.
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Post lot text
END OF SALE


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Exhibitions


Paris 1830
Paris, Musée du Luxembourg, Ouvrages de peinture, sculpture, architecture, gravure, dessins et lithographies exposés dans la galerie de la Chambre des pairs, au profit des blessés des 27-29 juilllet 1830, 1830.

London 1879
London, Burlington House, Exhibition of Works by the Old Masters and by deceased masters of the British School, including oil paintings, miniatures and drawings (Winter exhibition), 1879.

London 1887
London, Spencer House, St James’s, Art Exhibition, 1887.

London 1889
London, Burlington Fine Arts Club, Exhibition of Portrait Miniatures, 1889.

London 1890
London, 112 Gloucester Place, Portman Square, London, Miniatures, Enamels, Pastels and Waxes, 1890.

Paris 1900
Paris, Grand Palais, Exposition universelle, 1900.

Paris 1906
Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, Œuvres d'art du XVIIIe siècle, 1906.

Basel 1912
Basel, Kunsthalle, Historische Ausstellung von Erzeugnissen der Kunst und des Kunstgewerbes aus Basler Privatbesitz, 1912.

Brussels 1912
Brussels, Hôtel du baron Goffinet, Exposition de la miniature, 1912.

Paris 1923
Paris, Musée Galliéra, Exposition de la Verrerie et de l’émaillierie modernes – section rétrospective, 1923.

Vienna 1924
Vienna, Albertina, Internationale Miniaturen-Ausstellung in der Albertina Wien, 1924.

Paris 1925
Paris, Deux Siècles d’art français, 1925.

Paris 1926
Paris, Hôtel des Négociants en objets d’art, tableaux & curiosités, Femmes peintres du XVIIIe siècle, 1926.

Vienna 1931
Vienna, Nationalbibliothek, Das gemalte Kleinporträt, 1931.

Arenenberg 1954
Arenenberg, Napoleonmuseum, Miniaturen und Karikaturen, 1954.

Zurich 1955
Zurich, Kunsthaus, Schönheit des 18. Jahrhunderts, 1955.

Geneva 1956
Geneva, Musée d'art et d'histoire, Chefs-d'œuvre de la miniature et de la gouache, 1956.

Zurich 1957-1958
Zurich, Haus am Rechberg, 1957/1958.

Toulouse 1960
Toulouse, Musée Paul-Dupuy, De Bouton à Goya. Cinq miniaturistes à la cour de Madrid, 1960.

Zurich 1961
Zurich, Haus am Rechberg, 1961.

Vienna 1965
Vienna, Albertina, Meisterwerke der Europäischen Miniaturmalerei von 1750 -1850, 1965.

London 1972
London, Royal Academy and Victoria & Albert Museum, The Age of Neoclassicim, 1972.

Edinburgh 1975
Edinburgh, The Scottish Arts Council Gallery, A Gentle Kind of Painting, 1975.

Bordeaux /Geneva / Paris 1995-96
L'âge d'or du petit portrait, Bordeaux, musée des Arts décoratifs, and Geneva, musée de l'horlogerie, and Paris, musée du Louvre, 1995/1996.

Saint-Dié-des-Vosges 2010
Saint-Dié-des-Vosges, musée Pierre-Noël, Jean-Baptiste Jacques Augustin 1759-1832, peintre en miniature, 2010.

Caen 2014
Caen, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Caen, Marie-Gabrielle Capet (1761-1818), une virtuose de la miniature, 2014.


Literature

Archer 1979
M. Archer, India and British Portraiture, 1770–1825, London, 1979.

Augustin 1853
P. Augustin, ‘Notice sur la vie et les œuvres du peintre Augustin, par sa femme’ in: F.-J. Grille, Autographes de savants et d’artistes, de connus et d’inconnus, de vivants et de morts, Paris, 1853, pp. 26-29.

Augustin 1862
P. Augustin, ‘Augustin. Notice sur sa vie et ses oeuvres, par sa femme’ Revue universelle des arts, 15, 1862, pp. 41-42.

von Boehn 1924
M. von Boehn, Miniaturen und Silhouetten, Munich, 1925 (4th edition).

Bouchot 1907
H. Bouchot, La Miniature française 1750–1825, Paris, 1907.

Bouchot 1910
H. Bouchot, La Miniature française 1750–1825, Paris, 1910.

Cavalli-Björkman 1981
G. Cavalli-Björkman, Svenskt Miniatyrmåleri, Stockholm, 1981.

Clouzot 1923
H. Clouzot, ‘Les Maîtres de la miniature sur émail au Musée Galliéra’, Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 65th year, July/August 1923, pp. 53-62.

Clouzot 1924
H. Clouzot, Dictionnaire de Miniaturistes sur émail, Paris, 1924

Clouzot 1928
H. Clouzot, La miniature en émail en France, Paris, no date [c. 1928].

Coincy Saint-Palais 1930
S. de Coincy Baronne de Saint-Palais, Un ménage d’artistes: la vie et les œuvres de J.-B. Jacques Augustin, miniaturiste, peintre du cabinet du roi, 1759–1832, et de sa femme Pauline du Cruet de Barailhon, 1781–1865, par leur arrière-petite-nièce, n. l., 1930 (typoscript).

Darmon 1927
J.-E. Darmon, Dictionnaire des peintres miniaturistes sur vélin, parchemin, ivoire et écaille, Paris, n. d. [1927].

Finet 1932
L. Finet, ‘Une miniaturiste oubliée: Marie-Thérèse de Noireterre’, Revue de l’art, April 1932, pp. 171-180.

Finsten 1981
J. Finsten, Isaac Oliver. Art at the Courts of Elizabeth I and James I, New York and London, 1981 (typoscript).

Foskett 1974
D. Foskett, Samuel Cooper 1609-1672, London, 1974.

Gabet 1831
Ch. Gabet, Dictionnaire des artistes de l’école française, au XIXe siècle, Paris, 1831.

Genoud 1999
J.-C. Genoud (ed.), 100 ans de miniatures suisses 1780–1880, Geneva, 1999.

Giannini 2014
T. Giannini, ‘The Raoux Family of Master Horn Makers in France: New Documents and Perspectives’, in the Journal of the American Musical Instrument Society, January 2014, pp. 112-162.

Grace 1986
P. Grace, ‘A Celebrated Miniature of the Comtesse d’Olonne’, Bulletin, Philadelphia Museum of Art, vol. 83, no. 353, 1986 (Fall), pp. 3-21.

Grimaldi 1873
A. B. Grimaldi, Catalogue of the Works of W. Grimaldi, R.A., 1873.

Grünstein 1923
L. Grünstein, Moritz Michael Daffinger und sein Kreis, Vienna and Leipzig, 1923.

Grünstein 1925
L. Grünstein, Die Bildnisminiatur und ihre Meister. Die Sammlung Professor Dr. Emerich Ullmann, Vienna, 1925.

Henninger-Tavcar 1995
K. Henninger-Tavcar, Miniaturporträts, Karlsruhe, 1995.

Hofstetter 1994
B. Hofstetter, Le miniaturiste François Dumont (1751–1831). Catalogue raisonné. Thèse de doctorat en histoire de l’art, Paris, 1994 (typoscript).

Hofstetter 2018
B. Hofstetter, Portraitminiaturen. Hundert Bildnisse aus der Sammlung JRKV, Potsdam, 2018.

Holzscheiter 1961
E. Holzscheiter, ‘Zu meiner Miniaturensammlung’, Librarium, 4, 1961, pp. 37-44.

Isler-Hungerbühler 1961
U. Isler-Hungerbühler, ‘Die Miniaturen-Sammlung Holzscheiter’ Artis, February 1961, pp. 31-33.

Jeannerat 1922
C. Jeannerat, ‘Il pittore Ferdinando Quaglia’ Dedalo, VIII, January 1922, pp. 536-550.

Jeannerat 1924
C. Jeannerat, ‘L’exposition internationale de miniatures de Vienne’, Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 1924, II, pp. 353-360.

Keil 2009
R. Keil, Heinrich Friedrich Füger. Nur wenigen ist es vergönnt das Licht der Wahrheit zu sehen,, Vienna, 2009.

Komelova 2004
G. N. Komelova, Augustin Ritt: Russian Miniaturist 1765-1799. Life and Art, St Petersburg, 2004.

de Langle/Schlumberger 1957
F. de Langle and E. Schlumberger, ‘Augustin’, Connaissance des Arts, no. 69, November 1957, pp. 102-106.

Lemoine-Bouchard 2002
N. Lemoine-Bouchard, Musée Cognaq-Jay. Les Miniatures, Paris, 2002.

Lemoine-Bouchard 2008
N. Lemoine-Bouchard, Les peintres en miniature actifs en France 1650-1850, Paris, 2008.

Loche/Roethlisberger 1978
R. Loche and M. Roethlisberger, L’opera complete di Liotard, Milan, 1978.

Long 1929
B. S. Long, British Miniaturists, London, 1929.

Lucquet de Saint-Germain 1987
A. L. Lucquet de Saint-Germain, ‘La miniature n’est pas morte’, Trouvailles, no. 63, April/May 1987, pp. 64-68.

Marcel 1906
H. Marcel, ‘L’exposition du XVIIIe siècle à la Bibliothèque nationale’, La revue de l’art, XIX, pp. 321-336.

Martin-Bouton 1962
J. Martin-Bouton, ‘Guillaume et Joseph Bouton, miniaturistes européens’, Gazette des Beaux-Arts, April, 1962, pp. 241-250.

di Mauri 1918
L. de Mauri, L'amatore di miniature su avorio, Milan, 1918.

von der Mühll 1947
Th. von der Mühll, ’Bildnis-Miniaturen’, Du, December 1947, pp. 40-46.

Pappe 2015
B. Pappe, Jean-Baptiste Jacques Augustin 1759–1832. Une nouvelle excellence dans l’art du portrait en miniature, Verona, 2015.

Parisio 2012
C. Parisio, Ferdinando Quaglia 1780-1853, da Piacenza a Parigi, Brescia, 2012.

Peccatte 1913-14
C. ‘Jacques Augustin’, Bulletin de la Societé philomatique vosgienne, vol. 39, 1913-14, pp. 61-88.

Pirchan 1943
E. Pirchan, Moritz Michael Daffinger Miniaturmaler des Vormärz, Vienna/Leipzig, 1943.

Propert 1887
J. L. Propert, A History of Miniature Art, London, 1887.

Rieben 1951
H. Rieben, Bildnis-Miniaturen, Berne, no date [ca. 1950/1951].

Rieben 1952
H. Rieben, Portraits en miniature, Berne, 1952.

Roethlisberger/Loche 2008
M. Roethlisberger and R. Loche, Liotard. Catalogue, sources et correspondance, Doornspijk, 2008.

Save 1888
G. Save, Augustin, miniaturiste lorrain, Nancy, 1888.

Scarisbrick 2011
D. Scarisbrick, Portrait Jewels. Opulence and Intimacy from the Medici to the Romanovs, London, 2011.

Schidlof 1911
L. R. Schidlof, Die Bildnisminiatur in Frankreich im XVII., XVII. und XIX. Jahrhundert, Vienna/Leipzig, 1911.

Schidlof 1964
L. R. Schidlof, The Miniature in Europe, Graz, 1964.

Schneeberger 1958
P.-F. Schneeberger, ‘Miniatures genevoises de la collection E. Holzscheiter’, Genava, VIII, November 1960, pp. 229-240.

Stix 1925
A. Stix, H. F. Füger, Wien/Leipzig, 1925.

Trivas 1940
N. Trivas, ‘Liotard in France’, The Connoisseur, September 1940, pp. 89-95.

Tissot 2010
K. Tissot (ed.), Artistes à Genève, Geneva, 2010.

Walker 1985
R. Walker, Regency Portraits, London, 1985.

Walker 1992
R. Walker, Miniatures in the collection of Her Majesty The Queen: The eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, Cambridge, 1992.

Werner 1951
A. Werner, Famous Portrait Miniatures, New York, 1951.

Williamson 1897
G. C. Williamson, Richard Cosway, R.A. and his Wife and Pupils, London, 1897.

Williamson 1904
G. C. Williamson, The History of Portrait Miniatures, London, 1904.

Williamson 1905
G. C. Williamson, Richard Cosway, R.A., London, 1905.

Williamson 1906
G. C. Williamson, Catalogue of the Collection of Miniatures – The Property of J. Pierpont Morgan, London, 1906.

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Lot Essay

In 1735, Jean-Etienne Liotard left his home town of Geneva for a long voyage. After highly successful sojourns in Italy, the Ottoman Empire, Austria, Germany and England, the self-styled peintre turc arrived in Paris between late 1747 / early 1748 where he remained until 1753. In Paris, Liotard was introduced at court by one his models, the Maréchal de Saxe and in 1749, the year the present enamel was made, he painted the French Royal Family.
Liotard, who excelled in pastels, oil painting, drawing, engraving and watercolour and gouache on paper, parchment and ivory, considered the enamel technique the most durable and the only technique worthy of royalty: ‘je le consacrerois à l’Immortalité en le peignant en Email en grand le seul genre durable et digne d’un Roi qui commence à regner avec tant de gloire.’ (from a letter to Lord Bute dated 4 March 1761, suggesting he immortalize the young King George III by painting him in enamel – Walker 1992, p. 260).
We are indebted to Prof. Marcel Roethlisberger and Michael Asvarishch, Curator of the Numismatic Department at the State Russian Museum, St Petersburg, for their help in the preparation of this catalogue entry.
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