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Winslow Homer (1836-1910)
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Winslow Homer (1836-1910)

Where are the Boats?

Details
Winslow Homer (1836-1910)
Where are the Boats?
signed and dated 'Winslow Homer/1883' (lower right)
watercolor and pencil on paper
image, 13 ½ x 19 5/8 in. (34.3 x 49.9 cm.);
sheet, 14 x 20 1/8 in. (35.6 x 51.1 cm.)
Executed in 1883.
Provenance
The artist.
Doll & Richards, Boston, Massachusetts, acquired from the above, 1883.
George Baty Blake, Boston, Massachusetts, 1883.
John Armory Lowell Blake, Boston, Massachusetts, son of the above.
F.W. Bayley & Son, Boston, Massachusetts, 1930.
John S. Ames, Boston, Massachusetts, 1930.
Mrs. John S. Ames, North Easton, Massachusetts, by descent from the above, 1959.
David Ames, North Easton, Massachusetts, son of the above, gift from the above.
Firestone & Parson, Boston, Massachusetts, 1973.
George D. Hart, San Francisco, California, 1973.
Hirschl & Adler Galleries, Inc., New York, 1980.
Andrew Crispo Gallery, New York.
Sotheby's, New York, 3 December 1987, lot 105, sold by the above.
Acquired by the late owners from the above.
Literature
J. Barnitz, et al., The David and Peggy Rockefeller Collection: Art of the Western Hemisphere, vol. II, New York, 1988, pp. 386-87, no. 257, illustrated.
L. Goodrich, A.B. Gerdts, Record of Works by Winslow Homer: 1883 through 1889, vol. IV.2, New York, 2012, pp. 246-47, no. 1191, illustrated.
Exhibited
Boston, Massachusetts, Doll & Richards, Watercolors by Winslow Homer, December 1-15, 1883, no. 3.
Boston, Massachusetts, Museum of Fine Arts, October 1941.
New York, Whitney Museum of American Art, Oils and Watercolors by Winslow Homer, October 2-November 2, 1944, no. 39.
Worcester, Massachusetts, Winslow Homer, November 16-December 17, 1944, p. 5, no. 39.
Washington, D.C., National Gallery of Art; New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art; Boston, Massachusetts, Museum of Fine Arts, Winslow Homer: A Retrospective Exhibition, November 23, 1958-May 3, 1959, no. 114 (no. 103 for Boston location).
Davenport, Iowa, Davenport Art Gallery; Little Rock, Arkansas, Arkansas Arts Center; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Oklahoma Art Center; Corpus Christi, Texas, Art Museum of South Texas; Kansas City, Missouri, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art; Huntsville, Alabama, Huntsville Museum of Art; Stillwater, Oklahoma, Gardiner Art Gallery; Pueblo, Colorado, Sangre Cristo Art Center; Lincoln, Nebraska, Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery; Peoria, Illinois, Lakeview Museum of Arts & Sciences; Salina, Kansas, Salina Art Center; Springfield, Missouri, Springfield Art Museum; Lexington, Kentucky, University of Kentucky Art Museum; Terra Haute, Indiana, Sheldon Swope Art Gallery; Chattanooga, Tennessee, Hunter Museum of Art; Albany, Georgia, The Albany Museum of Art; Charlotte, North Carolina, The Mint Museum of Art; Youngstown, Ohio, The Butler Institute of American Art; Madison, Wisconsin, Elvehjem Museum of Art, American Works on Paper: 100 Years of American Art History, December 1983-January 1987, pp. 40, 107, no. 40, illustrated.
Special Notice

On occasion, Christie's has a direct financial interest in the outcome of the sale of certain lots consigned for sale. This will usually be where it has guaranteed to the Seller that whatever the outcome of the auction, the Seller will receive a minimum sale price for the work. This is known as a minimum price guarantee. This is a lot where Christie’s holds a direct financial guarantee interest.

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Lot Essay

In the spring of 1881, Winslow Homer arrived by ship in Liverpool to seek new inspiration on English shores. After spending a short time in London exploring the British Museum and the Houses of Parliament, Homer eventually moved on to Cullercoats, a small fishing village on the northeast coast of England not far from the Scottish border, where he stayed for twenty months. Two miles from the more fashionable resort town of Tynemouth, in the 1880s Cullercoats had a population of about two thousand people and around eighty fishing boats. In this small town, Homer’s style underwent a significant transformation, employing rounder modeling and grayer tones to reflect the harsh winds and waves of the British coastline. This change in his watercolor technique showcased his admiration for how the local fisherwomen weathered their hardships. As a result, Homer’s paintings recording the daily life at Cullercoats, including Where are the Boats?, are some of the most poignant and compelling watercolors of his career.

Most likely painted from sketches after his return to New York in 1883, Where are the Boats? depicts three fisherwomen awaiting the return of their husbands and sons. The women stand strong near the edge of a cliff, one actively seeking out the boats on the horizon while the other two industriously continue their knitting. Homer was exceedingly impressed by the demeanor of these active women. Helen Cooper explains, “Like most everyone else who visited Cullercoats, Homer was drawn to the fisherwomen. ‘Fair complexioned, sun-tanned, ruddy cheeks, with strong-built but supple forms’ they were famous for their beauty. They were, as one writer put it, ‘the great feature of the place’…not only did the complete care of the family fall to them, but its prosperity was largely dependent on their ability to sell the fish the men caught. As the men slept, the fisherwomen worked throughout the day. They searched for bait, dug for sand worms, or gathered mussels, limpets, and dogcrabs from the rocks. They assisted in the baiting of hooks, helped to push the boats into the often icy waters at sunset, and pulled them in again at five or six in the morning when they returned laden with fish. The fisherwoman was described as healthy and powerful; her ways, modest and restrained.’’ (H. Cooper, Winslow Homer Watercolors, Washington, D.C., 1986, p. 116-17)

Although the women in Where are the Boats? bear a strong resemblance to each other, Homer particularly illustrates each woman’s individual clothing, head position and stance to reflect his awe with the distinct fashions of these strong, working women. In fact, the artist is recorded as saying, “Look at the fishergirls…in this picture I am painting; there are none like them in my country in dress, feature or form. Observe the petticoat that girl is wearing. No American girl could be found wearing a garment of that color or fashioned in that style.” (Winslow Homer: The Nature of Observation, Berkeley, California, 2002, p. 99) Homer's Cullercoats watercolors also show a powerful emphasis on the natural world surrounding his figural subjects. In Where are the Boats?, Homer paints rocky cliffs and a cloudy sky to recreate the harsh mood of the northeastern English shore. Strong winds are evident in the eroded cliff face and blowing aprons. Homer renders these environmental elements through a combination of the broad washes of color he had long favored with more refined detail and tighter handling, particularly for the rock surface and figures.

Homer's Cullercoats pictures received favorable reviews from the very beginning. For example, a contemporary critic Mariana Griswold Van Rensselaer wrote, “The most complete and beautiful things he has yet produced, [and] among the most interesting American art has yet created. They are, to begin with, pictures in the truest sense, and not mere studies or sketches, like most of his earlier aquarelles...The dignity of these landscapes and the statuesque impressiveness and sturdy vigor of these figures, translated by the strong sincerity of his brush, prove an originality of mood, a vigor of conception, and a sort of stern poetry of feeling to which he had never reached before.” (Winslow Homer Watercolors, p. 119)

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