Mary Cassatt, In the Box, c. 1879 (detail). Oil on canvas. 43.7 x 62.2 cm. Private Collection
Garden at Sainte-Adresse, 1867, by Claude MonetSold for £588,000, 1 December 1967
This bright seaside scene was painted by Claude Monet (1840-1926) on a family holiday near Le Havre in 1867. It was a difficult time for the artist: he was in dire financial straits and hoped that this exuberant depiction of light, colour and air would impress the official Paris Salon.
Claude Monet (1840-1926), La Terrasse à Saint-Adresse, 1867. Oil on canvas. 38⅝ x 51⅛ in (98.1 x 129.9 cm). Purchase, special contributions and funds given or bequeathed by friends of the Museum, 1967. Acc.n.: 67.241. Photo: © The Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource/Scala, Florence
It was rejected, however, and Monet became so despondent he considered suicide. ‘I threw myself en plein air with body and soul,’ he lamented. ‘I was trying to do something that was a dangerous innovation — effects of light and colour and the full outdoors that shocked accepted customs.’
The painting was later bought by The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and remains one of the highlights of the museum’s collection.
Dans un café (L’absinthe), 1875-76, by Edgar DegasSold for £180 in 1892
This extraordinary painting by Edgar Degas (1834-1917) caused notoriety when it was first exhibited in the third Impressionist exhibition in 1877. The two figures — actor Ellen Andrée (1856-1933) and the engraver Marcellin Desboutin (1823-1902) — were accused of being alcoholics, the painting as representing the degradation of society during a period of rapid industrialisation.
Edgar Degas, Dans un café (L’absinthe), 1875-76. Oil on canvas. Musée d’Orsay, Paris. Photo: © RMN-Grand Palais (Musée d’Orsay) / Adrien Didierjean
In fact, the off-kilter composition, which gives the appearance of the figures being drunk, is down to the artist’s interest in photography. He wanted the painting to look like a snapshot taken by an observer seated at a corner table.
The painting can now be found in the Musée d’Orsay in Paris.
In the Box, c. 1879, by Mary CassattSold for $4,072,500 in 1996
Mary Cassatt (1844-1926) was an American artist who went to France in the 1870s and embraced the radical new movement shocking Paris at the time. Like her male contemporaries, she wanted to depict the excitement and tumult of modern life, yet the dance halls and cafés they sketched in were no place for a woman.
Mary Cassatt, In the Box, c. 1879. Oil on canvas. 43.7 x 62.2 cm. Private Collection
Cassatt needed a space where she could observe and draw without attracting attention. The Palais Garnier, the city’s newly built opera house, provided her with a rich tapestry of modern life. It was here that the beau monde came to see and be seen, exemplified by the young woman looking through her opera glasses at the audience, rather than the performers on stage.
Après le déjeuner, 1881, by Berthe MorisotSold for £6,985,250 in 2013
In 1881, Berthe Morisot (1841-1895) and her husband Eugène Manet (brother of the celebrated painter Edouard Manet) were staying in Bougival with their young daughter, Julie. The town was popular with the Impressionists painters, thanks to its close proximity to Paris and the river Seine, where the artists could study the effects of light on water.
Berthe Morisot (1841-1895), Après le déjeuner, 1881. Oil on canvas. 31⅞ x 39⅜ in (81 x 100 cm). Sold for £6,985,250 on 6 February 2013 at Christie’s London
It was to be the setting for some of Morisot’s most highly acclaimed paintings, notably Après le déjeuner, which was exhibited at the seventh Impressionist exhibition in 1882. On seeing the exhibition, the Symbolist writer Stéphane Mallarmé described Morisot as ‘a great artist, with nothing of the banal’.
Les Poseuses ( petite version), 1886-88, by Georges SeuratSold for £430,500 in 1970
Georges Seurat (1859-1891) was the founder of a radical colour theory called Pointillism, in which dots of different colour were placed next to each other to create emotive effects. He first introduced the idea to the public in his painting Un dimanche après-midi à l’Île de la Grande Jatte (1884-6), which can be seen in the background of this highly unusual painting.
Georges Seurat, Les Poseuses (petite version), 1886-88. Oil on canvas. 35.5 x 49 cm. Private Collection. Photo: Josse/Scala Florence
Les Poseuses is set in Seurat’s studio, and can be read as an essay on the opposition of nature and artifice, with the relaxed forms of the nude models contrasting with the stilted figures in the park scene behind. The three figures look as if they have just stepped out of the painting, and we can see the clothes and parasols Seurat used as props around them.
Sunflowers, 1888, by Vincent van GoghSold for £24,750,000, 30 March 1987
Vincent van Gogh, Sunflowers, 1888. Oil on canvas. 100.5 x 76.5 cm. Seiji Togo Memorial Sompo Japan Nipponkoa Museum of Art, Tokyo. Photo: Bridgeman Images
It took him six days to complete four works, which had a similar decorative style to Japanese prints. In total, Van Gogh painted seven versions of his sunflowers and together they amount to an iconic body of work, representing the artist at the height of his powers.
In 1987, the Yasuda Fire and Marine Insurance Company in Tokyo bought the painting to replace a version that had been destroyed by fire in the Yokohama City Art Museum in 1945.
Jardin et poulailler chez Octave Mirbeau, Les Damps, 1892, by Camille PissarroSold for $10,263,000 in 2019
Camille Pissarro, Jardin et poulailler chez Octave Mirbeau, Les Damps, 1892. Sold for $10,263,000 on 11 November 2019 at Christie’s New York
Pissarro had been excited by the prospect of painting the writer’s garden, which almost rivalled Monet’s at Giverny in ambition. ‘Have you spruced it up, decked it out, made it more attractive for me?’ Pissarro wrote to his friend in July. ‘If time allows, I will gladly set down a memory of it on a magnificent size 30 canvas.’
Mirbeau was one of Pissarro’s greatest advocates, championing the artist’s Neo-Impressionist Pointillist technique, which he described as ‘revolutionary’.
Man in a Blue Smock, c. 1896-97, by Paul CézanneSold for $3,900,000 in 1980
By the time Paul Cézanne (1839-1906) painted this portrait in the late 1890s, he was at the peak of his career, having been rediscovered by a younger group of avant-garde artists who considered him the father of modern art.
Paul Cézanne, Man in a Blue Smock, c. 1896-97. Oil on canvas. 32⅛ x 25½ in (81.5 x 64.8 cm). Acquired in memory of Richard F. Brown, the Kimbell Art Museum’s first director, by the Kimbell Board of Trustees, assisted by the gifts of many friends, APg 1980.03. Photo: Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas /Art Resource, NY/Scala, Florence
The painting depicts an agricultural worker, who most probably worked on the Cézanne family estate, seated in front of the artist’s first known work — a screen that resembles an 18th-century tapestry. The setting is deliberate; the faceless woman in the background appears like a ghost behind the solid, sculptural features of the farmhand. Cézanne is showing us how his new technique, with its vibrant patchwork of brushstrokes, is a radical departure from the old.
The painting can now be found in the Kimbell Art Museum in Fort Worth, Texas.
Femme nue couchée, Gabrielle, 1903, by Pierre-Auguste RenoirSold for $10,162,500 in 2010
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Femme nue couchée, Gabrielle, 1903. Oil on canvas. 26 x 61 in (66.5 x 155.5 cm). Private Collection
The translucent skin, contrasted with the dark eyes, recalls those of the Renaissance painter Titian, who Renoir admired very much. The woman is the governess for the artist’s family, who became Renoir’s most painted model. Renoir explained that the strikingly intimate composition was achieved by moving his easel very close to his subject. Femme nue couchée, Gabrielle, 1903, now resides in the Museum of Fine Arts in Budapest.
Christie’s Online Magazine delivers our best features, videos, and auction news to your inbox every week
Le bassin aux nymphéas, 1919, by Claude MonetSold for £40,921,250 on 24 June 2008
The Water Lilies of Claude Monet (1840-1926) are considered to be some of the most beautiful paintings in the world. The artist was a master of colour, who found a constant source of inspiration in the emerald greens, blues and purples of his exotic water garden at his home in Giverny.
Claude Monet, Le bassin aux nymphéas (The Waterlily Pond), 1919. Oil on canvas. 100.4 x 201 cm. Sold for £40,921,250 on 24 June 2008 at Christie’s London
He was fascinated by reflections and how light and water were changed by each other, resulting in immersive paintings that exerted a lasting influence on later avant-garde artists.
When Le bassin aux nymphéas was offered at auction in London in 2008, it had not been seen in public for 80 years, having been in the private collection of the American industrialist J. Irwin Miller.