‘Re-enchanting the familiar and the functional’ — Les Lalanne

‘Re-enchanting the familiar and the functional’ — Les Lalanne

A guide to one of the most dynamic husband-and-wife duos of the 20th century, François-Xavier and Claude Lalanne, whose surreal sculptures and exquisite decorative arts are now more coveted than ever

After the space-age monochrome modernism of the 1960s, the 1970s ushered in a renewed interest in nature and the organic — exemplified by the works of François-Xavier (1927-2008) and Claude Lalanne (1924-2019). 

Les Lalanne, as they became known collectively, were one of the most dynamic art couples of the 20th century. Courted by Surrealists and celebrities alike, their distinctive blend of fine and decorative arts, which was based on naturalistic forms, has made their work highly prized by contemporary collectors. 

When Claude passed away in April 2019 at the age of 93, French president Emmanuel Macron and his wife, Brigitte, released a statement of condolences, speaking of how the couple kneaded together ‘imagination, humour and poetry’ to create works that ‘re-enchant the familiar and the functional’.  

A brilliant example is the Hippopotame I  bathtub, below, a life-size representation — almost three metres long — of the African ‘river-horse’ in brass and copper that opens up to reveal a sink and vanity folded into its cavernous mouth, and a full bathtub stowed in its body.

François-Xavier Lalanne (1927-2008), unique Hippopotame I bathtub, conceived in 1968, executed in 1969. 50½ x 114 x 33  in (128.3 x 289.6 x 83.8  cm), closed. Estimate $1,000,000-1,500,000. Offered in La Ménagerie on 12 November 2019 at Christie’s in New York

François-Xavier Lalanne (1927-2008), unique Hippopotame I bathtub, conceived in 1968, executed in 1969. 50½ x 114 x 33 in (128.3 x 289.6 x 83.8 cm), closed. Estimate: $1,000,000-1,500,000. Offered in La Ménagerie on 12 November 2019 at Christie’s in New York

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  • François-Xavier knocked back vodka with Constantin Brancusi

François-Xavier Lalanne moved to Paris at the age of 18 and rented a studio in the Impasse Ronsin, an artists’ enclave in Montparnasse. His neighbour was Constantin Brancusi, whom he often visited bearing vodka and cigarettes. The great sculptor introduced Lalanne to the circle of Surrealists — including Max Ernst and Man Ray — who proved to be highly influential for the young artist. 

Claude met her future husband at an exhibition of his work in 1952. They soon moved in together but did not marry until 1967.

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  • François-Xavier Lalanne’s sheep sculptures reference Homer

Now known as the Moutons de Laine, François-Xavier’s celebrated sheep sculptures (below) were first presented with the title Pour Polytheme, a reference to a passage in Homer’s Odyssey. It describes how Ulysses and his comrades blind the cyclops Polyphemus, and escape from his cave by clinging to the bellies of his giant sheep.

François-Xavier Lalanne (1927-2008), Bélier, Transhumant and Agneua from the Nouveaux Mouton series, 2002-2006. 20  in (50.8  cm) high, 24  in (61  cm) wide, 7  in (17.8  cm) deep. Sold for $675,000 on 4 June 2019 at Christie’s in New York

François-Xavier Lalanne (1927-2008), Bélier, Transhumant and Agneua from the Nouveaux Mouton series, 2002-2006. 20 in (50.8 cm) high, 24 in (61 cm) wide, 7 in (17.8 cm) deep. Sold for $675,000 on 4 June 2019 at Christie’s in New York

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  • Yves Saint Laurent was an early patron

François-Xavier’s first private commission was a sculptural bar for the home of fashion designer Yves Saint Laurent and his partner Pierre Bergé. It was offered in the legendary auction of the couple’s collection at Christie’s in 2009, and sold for €2,753,000, more than 15 times its low estimate. Saint Laurent particularly enjoyed lounging on his Lalanne sheep in his garden.

The couturier also worked with Claude Lalanne, whose gilt metal castings from the body of supermodel Verushka were incorporated into the designer’s Empreintes  collection of 1969. 

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  • The Lalannes’ work helped to inspire Serge Gainsbourg

In 1976 the singer Serge Gainsbourg named an album after Claude Lalanne’s sculpture L’Homme à Tête de Chou, or ‘The Man with the Head of a Cabbage’, and placed it on the front cover of the LP.

‘I had taken a mould of a cabbage and just wondered what it would look like with legs,’ explained Claude. ‘The moment I saw it, it felt right. It had emotion.’

Claude Lalanne (1925-2019), pair of Ginkgo chairs, 2005. Each 31  in (78.7  cm) high. Sold for $447,000 on 4 June 2019 at Christie’s in New York

Claude Lalanne (1925-2019), pair of Ginkgo chairs, 2005. Each 31 in (78.7 cm) high. Sold for $447,000 on 4 June 2019 at Christie’s in New York

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  • The Lalannes were ‘co-creators’, not collaborators

Over the course of their long marriage Les Lalanne often worked together, but in very different styles. They rarely collaborated on individual pieces; François-Xavier’s creations were more often inspired by the animal kingdom while Claude favoured the botanical. They were, however, united in their love for the surreal and in the humour they brought to their fine and decorative art.

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  • François-Xavier worked as a guard at the Louvre, and studied its Egyptian artefacts

When he first moved to Paris François-Xavier got a job as a guard at the Louvre, where he spent hours studying the collection of Egyptian artefacts. From baboons and cats, to rhinoceroses and hippopotami, the influence of this time is evident throughout his sculptural work. 

François-Xavier Lalanne (1927-2008), unique Rhinocéros IV, conceived and executed in 2001. 15¼ x 35 x 10  in (38.7 x 88.9 x 25.4  cm). Estimate $200,000-300,000. Offered in La Ménagerie on 12 November 2019 at Christie’s in New York

François-Xavier Lalanne (1927-2008), unique Rhinocéros IV, conceived and executed in 2001. 15¼ x 35 x 10 in (38.7 x 88.9 x 25.4 cm). Estimate: $200,000-300,000. Offered in La Ménagerie on 12 November 2019 at Christie’s in New York

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  • Their art was intended to be functional

Both François-Xavier and Claude Lalanne believed art should be part of the everyday, an idea that shines through in their sculptural yet functional creations. Even the sheep are intended to be used as furniture. 

‘I thought that it would be funny to invade that big living room with a flock of sheep,’ François-Xavier once explained. ‘It is, after all, easier to have a sculpture in an apartment than to have a real sheep. And, it’s even better if you can sit on it.’

Claude Lalanne (1924-2019), unique Structure végétale avec singes chandelier, executed in 2012. Width 65  in (167  cm). Estimate $400,000-600,000. Offered in La Ménagerie on 12 November 2019 at Christie’s in New York

Claude Lalanne (1924-2019), unique Structure végétale avec singes chandelier, executed in 2012. Width: 65 in (167 cm). Estimate: $400,000-600,000. Offered in La Ménagerie on 12 November 2019 at Christie’s in New York

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  • Claude Lalanne challenged the boundaries between art and design

During their long and successful career, Les Lalanne became darlings of the fashion world. In addition to working with Saint Laurent, Claude was commissioned by Hubert de Givenchy, Karl Lagerfeld, Marc Jacobs, John Galliano and Reed Krakoff, among others. 

After her husband’s death in 2008, Claude continued to work from the house in Ury, just south of Paris, that they had shared for over five decades. She would often take natural forms, such as leaves or flowers, and bath them in copper sulphate with a current running through it ( making the copper cling to the organic material), to create perfect replicas. 

In June 2016, the unique organic-form chandelier Claude Lalanne produced for Zeineb and Jean-Pierre Marcie-Rivière in 1996 sold for just over €1.8 million — more than seven times its low estimate — at Christie’s in Paris.

Claude Lalanne (b. 1925), Lustre Structure Végétale, Pièce Unique, 1996. Sold for €1,833,500 on 8-9 June 2016 in Paris

Claude Lalanne (b. 1925), Lustre 'Structure Végétale', Pièce Unique, 1996. Sold for €1,833,500 on 8-9 June 2016 in Paris

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  • Their early works were swatted aside by the critics

When they first showed their work, Les Lalanne were judged harshly by the critics. ‘[They] completely ignored us; for them, making sculptures which had a use was a complete nonsense,’ said Claude Lalanne in 2013. Yet Les Lalanne refused to conform, and soon their work was everywhere, from photoshoots in magazines to Paris’s most fashionable galleries. 

François-Xavier Lalanne (1927-2008), Gorille dérangé, conceived in 2007 in an edition of eight plus four artist’s proofs, cast in 2010. 22 x 30 x 22  in (55.9 x 76.2 x 55.9  cm). Estimate $200,000-300,000. Offered in La Ménagerie on 12 November 2019 at Christie’s in New York

François-Xavier Lalanne (1927-2008), Gorille dérangé, conceived in 2007 in an edition of eight plus four artist’s proofs, cast in 2010. 22 x 30 x 22 in (55.9 x 76.2 x 55.9 cm). Estimate: $200,000-300,000. Offered in La Ménagerie on 12 November 2019 at Christie’s in New York

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  • Their work is widely collected

In recent years, Les Lalanne have been the subject of a major retrospective at Les Arts Decoratifs in Paris and an extensive public exhibition at the Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden in Florida. Their work appears in major collections including the Cooper Hewitt Museum in New York, the Museé Nationale d’Art Moderne/Centre Georges Pompidou, and the Museé d’Histoire Naturelle in Paris.

Their legacy continues to resonate in the fashion world, with pieces being installed in Chanel, Dior and Tom Ford flagship stores. Collectors include the decorator Peter Marino, who used François-Xavier’s sculptures in his designs for Chanel’s fine jewellery shops, and Reed Krakoff, the creative director of Coach.