An etching process in which tone is created by treating a plate with fine particles of acid-resistant material (like powdered resin) and the plate is placed in an acid bath. The acid bites into the plate between the grains of resin and, when printed, the mass of tiny spots produces a textured area with tonal effects similar to watercolour wash.
Artist's Proof/ Epreuve d'Artiste: A method used for the manufacture of a three dimensional object from a design or a scanned object through ‘additive processes’. An industrial robot builds up layer after layer of the chosen material in order to make a complete form.
Bon à Tirer/Right to Print: The proof approved by the artist which establishes the standard for all other prints in the edition.
Cancellation Proof: When the edition is complete, the matrix — the base from which the print is made — is effaced, crossed out or otherwise ‘cancelled’. An impression is then taken from this matrix, showing that the plate has been ‘cancelled’. This ensures that no further uncancelled impressions can be pulled.
Carborundum: The trade name for silicon carbide, carborundum began its use in printmaking as an abrasive that was used in effacing lithographic stones. The particles, when mixed together with glue, can also be used to draw on a plate — sometimes creating a raised surface — which is then inked and printed with the ink being held in spaces between the particles. The resulting prints are often textured due to the raised areas of the printing surface.
Catalogue Raisonné: A scholarly catalogue which should include all the known works by an artist at the time of publication. Essential information by which works are identified is included.
Chine Appliqué/Chine Collé: A method of adhering a thin paper, sometimes of a different colour or texture, onto a larger, heavier sheet during the printing process using glue or water to dampen and coat the papers.
Colophon/ Justification: A note, usually at the end of a book or portfolio of prints, giving all or some of the following information: name of work, author, printer, place of printing, date, size of edition.
Deckle Edge: The natural, untrimmed edge of handmade paper usually slightly uneven and sometimes thinner than the rest of the sheet.
Digital Print: A method of printing a digital image, usually with a laser or inkjet printer.
Dry Point: An intaglio process in which a plate is marked or incised directly with a needle. The drypoint line can look very much like an etched line but is usually lighter.
Embossing: A process used to create a raised surface or raised element, but printed without ink.
An intaglio process in which a plate is marked or incised directly with a burin or other metal-marking tool. No acid is used in this process since the design is dug out by hand. An engraved line can range from very deep and wide, to lighter and thinner and is often characterised by a pointed end signalling the exit of the ‘v’ shaped burin from the metal
Etching: An intaglio process in which a plate is treated with an acid-resistant ground. The artist then draws through the ground with various tools to expose the metal. The plate is then immersed in an acid bath where the acid ‘bites’ or chemically dissolves the exposed lines. The metal plate is therefore ‘carved’ or ‘etched’ by the acid rather than by a tool directly in the metal.
Heliogravure: A method of making a photo-etched or photogravure plate using an aquatint texture directly on the plate to create tone.
Hors-Commerce: Meaning ‘outside the commercial edition’, these proofs, not originally intended for sale, are excluded from the numbering of an edition, but are otherwise exactly like the editioned prints in every other respect. Usually appears as ‘H.C.’.
Intaglio: All matrices which have either been cut into or ‘bitten’ into. The resulting ‘dug out’ lines are printed. Intaglio processes include etching, aquatint, engraving, mezzo tint and metal engravings, among others.