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EINSTEIN, Albert (1879-1955). Typed statement signed ('A. Einstein'), setting out an ethical code for scientists, in German, enclosed with a typed letter signed ('A. Einstein') to Jacob Landau of the Overseas News Agency, Princeton, 20 January 1947, in English. Together two pages, 4to (280 x 216mm), pencil annotations. [With:] carbon copies of Landau's letter to Einstein, 15 January 1947, and of the Agency's translation of Einstein's statement; and a typed letter signed by Einstein's secretary, Helen Dukas, suggesting amendments to the translation.
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EINSTEIN, Albert (1879-1955). Typed statement signed ('A. Einstein'), setting out an ethical code for scientists, in German, enclosed with a typed letter signed ('A. Einstein') to Jacob Landau of the Overseas News Agency, Princeton, 20 January 1947, in English.

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EINSTEIN, Albert (1879-1955). Typed statement signed ('A. Einstein'), setting out an ethical code for scientists, in German, enclosed with a typed letter signed ('A. Einstein') to Jacob Landau of the Overseas News Agency, Princeton, 20 January 1947, in English.

Together two pages, 4to (280 x 216mm), pencil annotations. [With:] carbon copies of Landau's letter to Einstein, 15 January 1947, and of the Agency's translation of Einstein's statement; and a typed letter signed by Einstein's secretary, Helen Dukas, suggesting amendments to the translation.

'MORAL LAW IS ABOVE ANY OBLIGATION TO THE STATE'. Having been asked by Landau for a reaction to Norbert Wiener’s 1947 article 'A Scientist Rebels' and for responses to five specific questions, Einstein sets out his vision of the proper ethical relationship between science and the state in the wake of World War II: '1. Non-cooperation in military matters should be a vital part of the moral code of basic scientists ... 2. There must not be blind submission to the law of the state. Moral law is above any obligation to the state ... 3. Development of science sprang from a craving for knowledge ... If scientific development is submitted to practical aims, true science degenerates. 4. The community has every interest in furthering science through material aid. However, it must not interfere in research ... 5. Any order to keep a scientific discovery (in the field of basic science) secret, would seriously harm science ...'. Einstein's covering letter voices his support for Norbert Wiener.

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