AN HISPANO-MORESQUE EARTHENWARE BLUE AND LUSTRED ARMORIAL CHARGER
AN HISPANO-MORESQUE EARTHENWARE BLUE AND LUSTRED ARMORIAL CHARGER
AN HISPANO-MORESQUE EARTHENWARE BLUE AND LUSTRED ARMORIAL CHARGER
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AN HISPANO-MORESQUE EARTHENWARE BLUE AND LUSTRED ARMORIAL CHARGER

CIRCA 1456-1461, VALENCIA, PROBABLY MANISES

Details
AN HISPANO-MORESQUE EARTHENWARE BLUE AND LUSTRED ARMORIAL CHARGER
CIRCA 1456-1461, VALENCIA, PROBABLY MANISES
Decorated in dark blue and lustre, the central medallion with the crowned arms of King Charles VII of France, the well with a band of lozenges, the broad border with three shields with the arms of Louis, Dauphin of France, the Duke of Burgundy and the arms of Portugal for the Duchess of Burgundy, divided by sparking flints between two briquets de bourgogne and against a ground of meandering lustred bryony and blue foliage, the reverse lustred with a large heraldic eagle displayed against a ground of fern leaves, pierced for suspension
18 in. (45.8 cm.) diameter
Provenance
Probably given by Philip III (‘Philip the Good’), Duke of Burgundy, to King Charles VII of France or his son Louis, later Louis XI.
Baron Alphonse de Rothschild (1827-1905).
Baron Édouard de Rothschild (1868-1949).
Confiscated from the above by the Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg following the Nazi occupation of France in May 1940 (ERR inv. no. R 4000).
Recovered by the Monuments Fine Arts and Archives Section from the Alt Aussee salt mines, Austria (no. 314⁄1), and transferred to the Munich Central Collecting Point, 23 June 1945 (MCCP no. 388⁄1).
Returned to France on 9 January 1946 and restituted to the Rothschild family.
By descent to the present owners.
Literature
Catalogue des objets d’art et de curiosité exposés au Musée Rétrospectif ouvert au Palais de l’Industrie en 1865, Paris, 1866, p. 243, no. 2654.
Franck, L’art ancien. Photographies des collections célèbres par Franck, Paris, 1868, Vol. II.
Cited by Alfred Darcel, ‘Le moyen-âge et la renaissance au Trocadéro: 4e article: Les faïences italiennes’, Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 2nd series, 18, 1878, p. 980.
Collections de M. le baron Alphonse de Rothschild, circa 1900 (n.d.), Vol. II.
G. Migeon, Exposition des Arts Musulmans, Paris, 1903.
Albert Van de Put, Hispano-Moresque Ware of the XV Century, London, 1904, pp. 69-71, pl. XIII.
Les chefs-d’œuvre des collections privées Françaises, retrouvés en Allemagne, 1946, p. 67, no. 179.
Balbina M. Caviró, La loza dorada en el Instituto de Valencia de Don Juan, Oro y lapislázuli, Valencia, 2011, p. 50, no. 106.
Exhibited
Paris, Palais de l’Industrie, Union Centrale des Beaux-Arts Appliqués à l’Industrie, Musée Rétrospectif, 1865, no. 2654 (as Pesaro).
Paris, Trocadero, Exposition Universelle, May-November 1878.
Paris, Musée des Arts Décoratifs, ‘Exposition des Arts Musulmans’, May-June 1903.
Paris, Orangerie de Tuileries, Les Chefs-d’Oeuvre des Collections Privées Françaises, June-August 1946, no. 179.

Lot Essay

The armorial shields on this extraordinary charger provide a terminus post quem and terminus ante quem for its decoration. Philip III, Duke of Burgundy, married Isabella of Portugal in 1429, and in the following year adopted the écu complet of Burgundy(1), which he used until his death in 1467. The border of the charger also includes fire-steels or briquets de bourgogne (b-shaped for Burgundy) and sparking flints, emblems which the duke incorporated into the Order of the Golden Fleece, which he created in 1430. These emblems form the jeweled collar of the order, which has fire-steels linked by flints.

The dating can be narrowed further because of the unusual combination of arms(2) and the events and intrigues surrounding Louis, Dauphin of France, at the time. Louis rebelled against his father, Charles VII, in 1440. The king forgave both him and his co-conspirators, and he was entrusted with the Dauphiné province in South-Eastern France. However, after further intrigues he was banished from Court, and he retreated to the Dauphiné. Against his father’s will, in 1451 he married the Duke of Savoy’s daughter, Charlotte, and in 1456 he left the Dauphiné and took refuge in the Duke of Burgundy’s Flemish territories. As the decoration of the present lot includes the Duke of Burgundy’s arms, this charger must date to Louis’s exile between 1456 and the death of his father in 1461, and his accession to the French throne as Louis XI.

In his 1904 article, Van de Put suggests that the present charger was probably given as a present by Philip ‘the Good’ to either the King, Charles VII, or his son Louis, the Dauphin. Although Philip was Charles’s enemy, when the Dauphin arrived in the duke’s Flemish territories Philip nonetheless wrote to the king directly. King Charles replied that the duke ‘should act as he would wish the king to act, if likewise he [the duke] had taken refuge with him’(3). The Dauphin was treated very generously and given a residence at Genappe. Van de Put noted that despite Philip's animosity towards the King, by ‘treating his guest with liberality, [Philip] was, in doing so, obeying the monarch’s behests’(4).

1. The écu complet of Burgundy, which followed Philip’s coronation as Duke of Brabant in 1430, is the impaling of the lions of Brabant and Limburg with the Duke’s second and third quarterings. Cf. Van de Put, ibid., 1904, pp. 64, citing O. De Wree’s publication on the Seals of Flanders, Les Sceaux des Comtes de Flandre, 1641, p. 61, pl. 33a.
2. The shield of Louis, the Dauphin, sits centrally on the border above the Royal arms.
3. Van de Put, ibid., 1904, p. 71, citing De Were, ibid., 1641, pp. 248-252.
4. Van de Put, ibid., 1904, p. 70.

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