Jérôme-Napoléon Bonaparte, King of Westphalia (1784-1860)
Jérôme-Napoléon Bonaparte, the youngest of Napoleon Bonaparte's five brothers, was born at Ajaccio on 15 November, 1784. He joined the navy in November 1800 and, on 24 December 1803 as a lieutenant in America, he married Elisa Paterson the daughter of a Baltimore merchant. The marriage was never recognised by the Emperor and was declared null on 21 March 1805. Quickly promoted during 1805, he became a rear admiral in September 1806, and was created Prince on 1 November of the same year. He was transferred to the army and was promoted divisional general on 14 March 1807, and named Grand Elector. Following the treaty of Tilsit on 7 July 1807 he was granted the Kingdom of Westphalia with Kassel as its capital. The following August, in Paris, he married Frederica-Catherine-Sophie-Dorothea daughter of the King of Westphalia. Due to the defeats inflicted on Napoleon he left his Kingdom on 26 October 1813 and went to Switzerland. He returned to France on Napoleon's return and was named a member of the Chamber of Peers on 4 June 1815, took part in the battle of Waterloo where he was wounded, and was detained by his father-in-law with whom he sought refuge. In 1816, using the title Prince of Montfort, he left Germany and went to Austria to his sister Queen Caroline, then to Trieste (1819), Rome (1823), Florence (1831), and Lausanne where his wife died in 1835. Allowed by Louis-Philippe to reside in Paris in 1847 Jérôme was given the rights of a French citizen, resumed his role as a general, and was named governor of Les Invalides on 23 December 1848. He was created Marshal of France on 1 January 1850 and President of the Senate by Napoleon III on 28 January 1852, which he resigned soon after. Jérôme died on 24 June 1860 at the Chateau of Villegenis near Massy.