A RARE DING 'LION' PILLOW
These lots have been imported from outside the EU … 顯示更多 A Rare Ding Ware Lion PillowRosemary Scott, Senior International Academic ConsultantThe current pillow is a rare example of a Ding ware pillow supported by the figure of a lion. While ceramic pillows surprise those in the West, who are accustomed to soft pillows, the use of ceramic pillows has a very long history in China and were regarded as eminently practical. In his poem Thanks to Master Huang for the Green Porcelain Pillow, the Northern Song poet Zhang Lei (張耒 1054-1114) from Chuzhou in modern Jiangsu province wrote: ‘The pillow made by Gong is green and sturdy; an old friend gave it to me to combat the heat; it cools down with the breeze in the room; so that my head is cool while I sleep’.The form of the lion supporting the current pillow – particularly the head - clearly has its origins in Tang dynasty white Xing ware figures of lions. These are guardian lions, depicted sejant – that is seated on their haunches with forelegs straight and both forepaws on the ground in front. They often are shown with their mouths open to display ferocious teeth, in keeping with their role as guardians. Two such lions were excavated in 1978 from a Tang dynasty tomb at Zhongyangquan village, Xingtai city, Hebei province (illustrated in Complete Collection of Ceramic Art Unearthed in China – 3 – Hebei, Beijing, no. 62). In China lion-shaped ceramic pillows were particularly popular during the Song-Jin period. A Song dynasty white-glazed pillow in the form of a lion, with the back of the lion providing the head rest, is in the collection of the Palace Museum, Beijing (illustrated in Porcelain of the Song Dynasty (I), The Complete Collection of Treasures of the Palace Museum, vol. 32, Hong Kong, 1996, p. 190, no. 172), while a Cizhou white-slipped lion-shaped pillow, with similarly scrolling tail to that on the current pillow, and with the back of the lion providing the head rest, is in the collection of the Tokyo National Museum (illustrated in Sekai toji zenshu – 12 – Song, Tokyo, 1977, p. 233, fig. 96). Lions were always regarded as auspicious and noble creatures, often depicted as guardians, and symbolising both harmony and protection against evil spirits, along with blessings and high rank. The character for lion in Chinese 獅 shi is a homophone for 世 shi meaning generations and can also suggest 師shi meaning tutor and 思 si meaning thoughts. In the case of this pillow the intention is almost certainly to suggest a wish for future generations who will enjoy high rank. A similar wish for male heirs is implied by the well-known Ding ware pillows with boy babies, but lion pillows incorporate the additional element of protection.Pillows in the shape of animals were already established amongst Chinese ceramics wares by the 9th century. In the 舊唐書 Jiu Tangshu, compiled by Liu Xu 劉昫 (888–947) and Zhang Zhaoyuan 張昭遠 (who took his jinshi degree in 877), it is noted that in the early 8th century pillows in the form of leopards were used in order to ward off evil spirits, while pillows in the form of crouching bears were believed to encourage fertility (see Xin Tangshu, juan 37, p. 1377). A Tang dynasty Changsha pillow in the form of a rhinoceros is in the collection of the Ji’nan City Museum, Shandong (illustrated in Zhongguo wenwu jinghua daquan Taoci juan, Taipei, 1993, p. 236, no. 206). A 9th-10th century brown lion or tiger-shaped pillow was excavated from the Tang dynasty port of Yangzhou in Jiangsu province; a 10th century Yue celadon tiger-shaped pillow was excavated in 1977 from Shangpu in Zhejiang province; and a Song dynasty white-glazed tiger-shaped pillow was excavated in 1953 at Hanyang in Hubei province (illustrated in Zhongguo wenwu jinghua daquan, Taoci juan, op. cit., p. 310, pl. 475). An 11th century Song or Liao white-glazed tiger or lion pillow was excavated in Bayan’erdeng township, Balin right Banner (illustrated in Gilded Splendor – Treasures of China’s Liao Empire (907-1125), New York, 2006, pp. 346-7, no. 111). A small sancai Liao dynasty lion pillow from the Bishop W.C. White and Harris collections was sold by Christie’s New York 16 March 2017, lot 878.There is a relationship between the current pillow and a small group of Ding ware pillows in the form of little boys. The National Palace Museum, Taipei has two of these boy pillows (illustrated in Catalogue of the Special Exhibition of Ting Ware White Porcelain, Taipei, 1987, nos. 15 and 16), and the Palace Museum, Beijing has a similar pillow also depicting a little boy lying on his stomach with one foot crossed over the other and his head resting on both arms (illustrated in Porcelain of the Song Dynasty (I), op. cit., pp. 46-7, no. 39). These three pillows are of almost identical shape. The platform base on which the lion in the lower section of the current pillow is depicted, strongly resembles the couch-like platforms which are seen on pillows with reclining boy children in the Palace Museum, Beijing, and the National Palace Museum, Taipei – albeit that the lion’s platform flares towards the foot of the pillow. The lion’s platform and the couch-like platforms on which the children lie each has similar recessed panels around the sides. The same feature can be seen on the remaining fragment of another Ding pillow excavated in 1973 at Beizhen village, Quyangxian, Hebei province (illustrated in Complete Collection of Ceramic Art Unearthed in China – 3 – Hebei, Beijing, no. 143). The base of this pillow, which has lost its upper section, is modelled as a reclining woman, and the couch-like platform on which she lies also has, somewhat simplified, recessed panels around the sides. It is also interesting to note that the figure of the woman is enveloped in scrolls, which are very similar to those which embellish the lion’s tail on the current pillow.Such platforms with recessed panels also appear in a number of Buddhist contexts, especially from the Liao area. As Dingzhou was near the border between Northern Song and Liao territory, it is not surprising that there should have been cultural exchanges between the two states that can be recognised in some Ding wares. Harold Mok has noted that: ’Given their frequent contacts with Han Chinese living in Liao territory and those under the neighbouring Northern Song, a degree of sinicization of the Qidan naturally followed. Neither were the Chinese who lived in Liao territories impervious to Liao culture.’ (see ‘Theme and Culture: Wall Paintings in Liao Tombs’, Noble Riders from Pines and Deserts – the Artistic Legacy of the Qidan, J. So (ed.), Hong Kong, 2004, p. 21). A Liao moulded ceramic sancai-glazed platform couch, with a cylindrical pillow placed at one end is in the Liaoning provincial museum (illustrated in Zhongguo wenwu jinghua daquan, Taoci juan, Tabei, 1993, p. 167, no. 570. This glazed couch also has recessed panels. Although it has no figure upon it but was obviously intended for a reclining figure of some kind. Of particular significance in relation to the current pillow and related Ding ware pillows, are two mid-11th century Liao dynasty painted marble recumbent Buddha figures, which were found in the imperial tombs at the White Pagoda in Balin, Right Banner, Qingzhou, in the 1970s. One of these is illustrated in Gilded Splendor – Treasures of China’s Liao Empire (907-1125), op. cit., pp. 254-7, no. 67. The platform on which this stone figure rests also has similarly recessed decorative panels to those seen on the current Ding lion pillow. Interestingly, there are eight lions decorating the panels on the Buddha’s couch, or bier. The Buddha represented is Shakyamuni, who is also known as Shakyasinha ‘lion of the Shakya clan’. Perhaps the lion on the current pillow not only had auspicious meaning but was also a reference to Shakyamuni.
宋/金 定窯瑞獅枕來源: 倫敦蘇富比2003年11月12日, 拍品130號定窯獅形枕 蘇玫瑰 佳士得國際資深學術顧問 本定窯獅形枕上接枕面,下塑臥獅,鉤爪鋸牙,型製獨特,殊為罕見。西方社會慣用軟枕,難免對陶瓷製枕大惑不解。然而,中國瓷枕出處甚古,來歷有緒,在古代社會司空見慣。北宋詩人張耒(1054 — 1114年,楚州人,即現今江蘇省一帶)在《謝黃師是惠碧瓷枕》中詠道:「鞏人作枕堅且青,故人贈我消炎蒸,持之入室涼風生,腦寒發冷泥丸驚」,反映瓷枕與古人起居生活息息相關。 本臥獅造型,尤其獅頭部分,乃沿襲唐代刑窯白瓷獅像餘緒。本獅俯身而臥,弓背直腿,兩爪拔地,呲牙咧嘴,劍拔弩張,作守衛狀。1978年,河北邢台中羊泉一唐代古墓出土兩獅,形像與本器雷同,見《中國出土瓷器全集三 — 河北》,北京,編號62。 獅形瓷枕在宋、金兩代尤其普及。北京故宮博物院藏一宋代白釉獅形枕,獅背作枕面,見《故宫博物院藏文物珍品全集 兩宋瓷器(一)》,卷32,香港,1996年,頁190,編號172。東京國立博物館藏一磁州窯獅形枕,同以獅背作枕面,獅尾卷如波浪,狀似本器,見《世界陶磁全集 ― 十二 — 宋》,東京,1977年,頁233,圖96。自古以來,獅子乃祥瑞之物,象徵威武莊嚴,收鎮宅闢邪之效,同時比喻尊貴地位。「獅」一字與多字同、諧音,語帶雙關:「世」,象徵世代繁衍;「師」,象徵為人師表,古有「人中獅子」之說,形容具威嚴、才華之人,佛典中「獅」常作「師」;「思」,即思想意念。由此推敲,本器可祈求家宅平安,寄願後人步步高升,福澤綿綿。其他定窯瓷枕偶繪嬰戲紋飾,與獅像喻意大同小異,求多子多福,或五子登科,惟獅子兼具鎮宅辟邪功用。 及至公元九世紀,獸形枕發展已臻於成熟,與諸多重要中國瓷器並列。 據劉昫(888-947年)、張昭遠(877年考得進士)合撰之《舊唐書》記載,唐初豹形枕用以避鬼驅邪,臥熊枕則寄望連生貴子,見《新唐書》,卷37,頁1377。山東濟南市博物館藏一唐代長沙窯犀牛枕,見《中國文物精華大全 — 陶瓷卷》,臺北,1993年,頁236,編號206。出土之器可援數例:一褐釉獅或虎形枕,公元九至十世紀,江蘇揚州唐代商埠出土;越州窯虎形枕,公元十世紀,1977年浙江上浦出土;宋代白釉虎形枕,1953年湖北漢陽出土,見《中國文物精華大全— 陶瓷卷》,同上,頁310,編號475;白瓷虎或獅形枕,十一世紀宋或遼,內蒙古自治區巴林右旗巴彥爾登蘇木出土,見《Gilded Splendor – Treasures of Chinas Liao Empire (907-1125)》,紐約,2006年,頁346 - 7,編號 111;遼代三彩獅形枕,Bishop W.C. White 及哈里斯先後收藏,佳士得2017年3月16日售出,拍品編號878。 本獅形枕與多具定窯孩形枕關係密切,臺北故宮博物院藏兩具定窯孩形枕,見《定窯白瓷特展圖錄》,臺北,1987年,編號15及16;北京故宮博物院藏一例,與上例相似,孩童俯身而臥,兩臂托腮,雙腳交疊,見《故宮博物院藏文物珍品全集 — 兩宋瓷器(一)》,同上,頁46至47,編號39。上述三具孩形枕,造型雷同,如出一轍。本獅形枕之基座形象,與兩院上述所藏孩形枕大為相似,惟前者底部稍往外撇。各器基座周邊皆施浮雕紋飾。1973年,河北曲陽北鎮村出土一定窯瓷枕殘件,同具以上特徵,見《中國出土瓷器全集 — 三 — 河北》,北京,編號143。該枕座上端已失,塑美人側卧塑,基座周邊雕刻簡練紋飾。無獨有偶,該美人與本獅尾皆飾以波浪紋飾,生動奇巧。 如此基座樣式,在佛教藝術中屢見不鮮,尤以遼代顯著。定窯位處北宋及遼國邊界,某程度上可謂集兩國文化之大成。莫家良稱,遼國境內有漢人聚居,加上毗鄰北宋,與中原文化交流頻繁,遂成一股漢化之契丹文化,兩者兼包並融,見莫氏〈題材與文化 — 遼代墓葬壁畫〉,蘇芳淑編《松漠風華 — 契丹藝術與文化》,香港,2004年,頁21。遼寧省博物館藏一三彩榻,一端連一管形枕,見《中國文物精華大全 — 陶瓷卷》,臺北,1993年,頁167,編號570。該榻四邊施浮雕,榻面雖無人像,惟放置臥像功能不言而喻。內蒙古自治區巴林右旗釋迦佛舍利塔,即慶州白塔,內裡之古代皇墓中有兩尊十一世紀遼國大理石彩繪臥佛,見《Gilded Splendor – Treasures of Chinas Liao Empire (907-1125)》,同上,頁254- 7,編號67,形象細節可與本獅形枕及相關定窯瓷枕相互比擬。該石像基座與本獅形枕同施浮雕紋飾,款式相約。供佛俯臥之榻,或柩,上飾八獅,繞富趣味,值得聯想。釋迦牟尼,又有釋迦獅子之別稱,即釋迦族的人中獅子。本枕臥獅,不僅象徵勇猛吉祥,更可令人聯繫到釋迦牟尼之佛教隱喻。

SONG-JIN DYNASTY (960-1234)

細節
宋/金 定窯瑞獅枕

來源: 倫敦蘇富比2003年11月12日, 拍品130號

定窯獅形枕

蘇玫瑰
佳士得國際資深學術顧問

本定窯獅形枕上接枕面,下塑臥獅,鉤爪鋸牙,型製獨特,殊為罕見。西方社會慣用軟枕,難免對陶瓷製枕大惑不解。然而,中國瓷枕出處甚古,來歷有緒,在古代社會司空見慣。北宋詩人張耒(1054 — 1114年,楚州人,即現今江蘇省一帶)在《謝黃師是惠碧瓷枕》中詠道:「鞏人作枕堅且青,故人贈我消炎蒸,持之入室涼風生,腦寒發冷泥丸驚」,反映瓷枕與古人起居生活息息相關。

本臥獅造型,尤其獅頭部分,乃沿襲唐代刑窯白瓷獅像餘緒。本獅俯身而臥,弓背直腿,兩爪拔地,呲牙咧嘴,劍拔弩張,作守衛狀。1978年,河北邢台中羊泉一唐代古墓出土兩獅,形像與本器雷同,見《中國出土瓷器全集三 — 河北》,北京,編號62。

獅形瓷枕在宋、金兩代尤其普及。北京故宮博物院藏一宋代白釉獅形枕,獅背作枕面,見《故宫博物院藏文物珍品全集 兩宋瓷器(一)》,卷32,香港,1996年,頁190,編號172。東京國立博物館藏一磁州窯獅形枕,同以獅背作枕面,獅尾卷如波浪,狀似本器,見《世界陶磁全集 ― 十二 — 宋》,東京,1977年,頁233,圖96。自古以來,獅子乃祥瑞之物,象徵威武莊嚴,收鎮宅闢邪之效,同時比喻尊貴地位。「獅」一字與多字同、諧音,語帶雙關:「世」,象徵世代繁衍;「師」,象徵為人師表,古有「人中獅子」之說,形容具威嚴、才華之人,佛典中「獅」常作「師」;「思」,即思想意念。由此推敲,本器可祈求家宅平安,寄願後人步步高升,福澤綿綿。其他定窯瓷枕偶繪嬰戲紋飾,與獅像喻意大同小異,求多子多福,或五子登科,惟獅子兼具鎮宅辟邪功用。

及至公元九世紀,獸形枕發展已臻於成熟,與諸多重要中國瓷器並列。 據劉昫(888-947年)、張昭遠(877年考得進士)合撰之《舊唐書》記載,唐初豹形枕用以避鬼驅邪,臥熊枕則寄望連生貴子,見《新唐書》,卷37,頁1377。山東濟南市博物館藏一唐代長沙窯犀牛枕,見《中國文物精華大全 — 陶瓷卷》,臺北,1993年,頁236,編號206。出土之器可援數例:一褐釉獅或虎形枕,公元九至十世紀,江蘇揚州唐代商埠出土;越州窯虎形枕,公元十世紀,1977年浙江上浦出土;宋代白釉虎形枕,1953年湖北漢陽出土,見《中國文物精華大全— 陶瓷卷》,同上,頁310,編號475;白瓷虎或獅形枕,十一世紀宋或遼,內蒙古自治區巴林右旗巴彥爾登蘇木出土,見《Gilded Splendor – Treasures of Chinas Liao Empire (907-1125)》,紐約,2006年,頁346 - 7,編號 111;遼代三彩獅形枕,Bishop W.C. White 及哈里斯先後收藏,佳士得2017年3月16日售出,拍品編號878。

本獅形枕與多具定窯孩形枕關係密切,臺北故宮博物院藏兩具定窯孩形枕,見《定窯白瓷特展圖錄》,臺北,1987年,編號15及16;北京故宮博物院藏一例,與上例相似,孩童俯身而臥,兩臂托腮,雙腳交疊,見《故宮博物院藏文物珍品全集 — 兩宋瓷器(一)》,同上,頁46至47,編號39。上述三具孩形枕,造型雷同,如出一轍。本獅形枕之基座形象,與兩院上述所藏孩形枕大為相似,惟前者底部稍往外撇。各器基座周邊皆施浮雕紋飾。1973年,河北曲陽北鎮村出土一定窯瓷枕殘件,同具以上特徵,見《中國出土瓷器全集 — 三 — 河北》,北京,編號143。該枕座上端已失,塑美人側卧塑,基座周邊雕刻簡練紋飾。無獨有偶,該美人與本獅尾皆飾以波浪紋飾,生動奇巧。

如此基座樣式,在佛教藝術中屢見不鮮,尤以遼代顯著。定窯位處北宋及遼國邊界,某程度上可謂集兩國文化之大成。莫家良稱,遼國境內有漢人聚居,加上毗鄰北宋,與中原文化交流頻繁,遂成一股漢化之契丹文化,兩者兼包並融,見莫氏〈題材與文化 — 遼代墓葬壁畫〉,蘇芳淑編《松漠風華 — 契丹藝術與文化》,香港,2004年,頁21。遼寧省博物館藏一三彩榻,一端連一管形枕,見《中國文物精華大全 — 陶瓷卷》,臺北,1993年,頁167,編號570。該榻四邊施浮雕,榻面雖無人像,惟放置臥像功能不言而喻。內蒙古自治區巴林右旗釋迦佛舍利塔,即慶州白塔,內裡之古代皇墓中有兩尊十一世紀遼國大理石彩繪臥佛,見《Gilded Splendor – Treasures of Chinas Liao Empire (907-1125)》,同上,頁254- 7,編號67,形象細節可與本獅形枕及相關定窯瓷枕相互比擬。該石像基座與本獅形枕同施浮雕紋飾,款式相約。供佛俯臥之榻,或柩,上飾八獅,繞富趣味,值得聯想。釋迦牟尼,又有釋迦獅子之別稱,即釋迦族的人中獅子。本枕臥獅,不僅象徵勇猛吉祥,更可令人聯繫到釋迦牟尼之佛教隱喻。
8 ¼ in. (21 cm.) wide
來源
Sotheby's London, 12 November 2003, lot 130.
注意事項
These lots have been imported from outside the EU for sale using a Temporary Import regime. Import VAT is payable (at 5%) on the Hammer price. VAT is also payable (at 20%) on the buyer’s Premium on a VAT inclusive basis. When a buyer of such a lot has registered an EU address but wishes to export the lot or complete the import into another EU country, he must advise Christie's immediately after the auction.

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Samantha Yuen
Samantha Yuen

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