The early Ming emperors were mostly devout Buddhists, in particular of Tibetan esoteric Buddhism. The Yongle Emperor was by far the most generous patron, donating large quantities of Buddhist works of art and artifacts to the Tibetan monasteries. These magnificent court pieces were based primarily on existing Tibetan and Nepalese prototypes of the fourteenth century, but with an unprecedented refinement and sumptuousness that is symbolic of the consolidation of power in the new dynasty. This new style continued through the Xuande period, albeit with dwindling creativity and vitality in design. By the Zhengtong period, court patronage was not nearly as vigorous as in the previous reigns, and not nearly as many pieces were commissioned by the court. Pronounced indigenous Chinese influences on the facial features and clothing are evident on the current figure and are equally pronounced on another gilt-bronze figure of Avalokiteshvara, dated by inscription to 1441, in the collection of the Beijing Palace Museum, illustrated in Sculptures in the Collection of the Palace Museum, Beijing, 2012, no. 213, indicating the stylistic transition of Chinese Buddhist bronzes in the second half of the Ming period.