A miniature vase like this would probably have been made to fit into a treasure box, where small items and interesting pieces in the miniature were kept and admired. Treasure boxes and their contents were enjoyed by the Emperor Qianlong and were also popular among collectors in the 18th century. Compare with other painted enamel versions of millefleurs in the miniature, found on snuff bottles in the collection of the Palace Museum, Beijing, illustrated in Snuff Bottles, The Complete Collection of Treasures of the Palace Museum, Hong Kong, 2003, pl. 135 (alternating with ruby landscapes) pl. 139, and pl. 152 (both with a multitude of fruit and flowers).