A clock of with similar bronze is illustrated in P. Kjellberg, La Pendule Française, Paris, 1997, p. 440, ill. A.
Napoleon defeated Mamluk troops in the Battle of the Pyramids when he attacked Egypt in 1798 and drove them to Upper Egypt. After that Napoleon formed his own Mamluk corps, the last known Mamluk force, in the early years of the 19th century, and used Mamluks in a number of his campaigns. Even his Imperial Guard had Mamluk soldiers during the Belgian campaign. Throughout the Napoleonic era there was a special Mamluk corps in the French army.