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An important German silver-gilt double-cup
No VAT will be charged on the hammer price, but VA… Read more Caption for new illustration Fig. 1. The 'Ratsherrn' of the Nuremberg Council (1611-1612) Gilded wax on slate Courtesy of the Germanisches National Museum Jacob Starck shown centre right, Jobst Friedrich Tetzel, top right
An important German silver-gilt double-cup

MARK OF HANS PETZOLT, NUREMBERG, DATED 1596

Details
An important German silver-gilt double-cup
Mark of Hans Petzolt, Nuremberg, dated 1596
Of Gothic revival form, each cup on lobed octafoil foot, the lobed stem with applied openwork scroll foliate skirt with foliage above, the shaped lobed bowl with applied continuous band of nine detachable cast and applied Renaissance jewel-like ornaments each centering on a caryatid beneath corded band and broad border finely engraved with a band of birds and insects amongst scrolling flowers and foliage, the interior of one cup set with a silver portrait medal of a gentleman within inscription, 'JACOB STARCK ZUM RECKEN: AETA: 46 Ao. 96', the reverse of a second medal visible beneath the base and with the motto 'IN TIMORE DOMINI FORTITUDO NOSTRA' surrounding the arms of the Starck family of Nuremberg, the other cup similarly inset, the medal with a woman's portrait bust and inscription 'ELISAB: STERCK: GEB: V: VSLER V: GOSLAR AETA: 41:' the reverse of a second medal visible beneath the base and with the arms of Usler von Goslar within the motto '+ GOTT ALLEIN DIE EHR + 1596', marked on lip and foot of each cup, each foot also marked with French post-1893 import mark, both cups with ink inventory numbers 'R.B.K. 1954-21' and 'NK 3220.'
Overall height 21¼in. (54cm.)
78oz. (2,426gr.)
Jacob Starck (1550-1617) was from an important Nuremberg family. Otto von Falke (op. cit., p. 37), records the Starck family arms on the Tetzel cup formed as a cat by Hans Hutten, 1626. The Starck arms appear as part of the genealogical tree incorporating those of 24 patrician families of the city. He became a member of the Rat of the city in 1578 and held several municipal offices.

In addition to the present medal, there is a bronze medal with his portrait dated 1614 in the Germanisches National Museum, Nuremberg (Inv. No. Med. 7936). A print by J.F. Leonard of Starck is also in the same museum as is a coloured and gilt wax portrait on slate showing the busts of the Ratsherrn of the Nuremberg Council of 1611-12 in which he is in prime position (Inv. No. Pl. 2211), (fig. 1).

A glass window survives in the Church of St Martha, Nuremberg, showing the arms of Starck impaling those of Usler of Goslar, dated 1613.
Provenance
Jacob Starck (1550-1617)
Baron Karl von Rothschild, Frankfurt, probably by 1885.
Orfèvrerie Allemande Pierres Dures Montis provenant de l'ancienne collection de Feu M. le Baron Carl Meyer de Rothschild (de Francfort), Gallerie George Petit, Paris, 12-13 June, 1911, Lot 25 (fr. 115,000. to J. and S. Goldschmidt of Frankfurt).
Eugen Gutmann prior to 1912, to his son
Fritz Gutmann
The Instituut Collectie Nederland (earlier the Stichting Nederlands Kunstbezit, no. NK.3220) until returned to the heirs of Fritz Gutmann in 2002.
Literature
F. Luthmer, Der Schatz des Freiherrn Karl von Rothschild. Meisterwerke alter Goldschmiedkunst aus dem 14-18 jahrhundert, Frankfurt, 1885, pl. 47 (the cup illustrated appears to be identical to the present example but the list of illustrations notes, presumably erroneously, that the cup bore a maker's mark which is now known to be that of Alexander Treghart)
O. von Falke, The Art Collection Eugen Gutmann, Berlin, 1912, p. II, cat. no. 114 and pl. 27.
O. von Falke, 'Die Neugotik im deutschen Kunstgewerbe der Spätrenaissance', in Jahrbuch der preussischen Kunstsammlungen, vol. 40, 1919, p. 85, pl. 5.
M. Rosenberg, Der Goldschmiede Merkzeichen, Frankfurt, 1925, vol. 3, p. 124, no. 4003 b.
H. Honour, Goldsmiths and Silversmiths, New York, 1971, p. 87, ill. on p. 88.
J. Hayward, Virtuoso Goldsmiths and the Triumph of Mannerism, 1540-1620, London, 1976, p. 384, pl. 482.
C. Hernmarck, The Art of the European Goldsmith, 1430-1830, London, 1977, vol. 2, p. 46, fig. 118
Exhibited
Amsterdam, The Rijksmuseum 1954-2002 (RBK 1954-21), on loan from the Instituut Collectie Nederland.
Special Notice

No VAT will be charged on the hammer price, but VAT at 17.5% will be added to the buyer's premium which is invoiced on a VAT inclusive basis

Lot Essay

This important double-cup is in the Gothic revival style that Hans Petzolt (1551-1633) pioneered at the end of the 16th Century. Other examples based on forms of a century or so earlier (cf. fig. 2) by Petzolt are recorded including one with more attenuated stems dating from 1600-1610 now in the Bayerisches National Museum in Munich (see the exhibition catalogue, Wenzel Jamnitzer und die Nurnberger Goldschmiedekunst 1500-1700, Germanisches National Museum, Nuremberg, 28 June-15 September 1985, cat. no. 71).

Another example, and one that is closer to Gothic prototypes, is in the collection of the Armoury, Moscow (MZ 227/1-2). This cup was presented to Tsar Mikhail Romanov in 1644 by the ambassador of Christian IV of Denmark and Norway. It was one of a number of gilded pieces given to the Tsar by this embassy which was to negotiate the final terms of the marriage of the King's son to the Tsar's daughter. (B. Shifman and G. Walton, eds., Gifts to the Tsars; 1500-1700, Treasures of the Kremlin, New York, 2001, pp. 294-5, cat. no. 90).

Although with a pure Renaissance finial of the Goddess, the Diana cup in the Kunstgewerbemuseum in Berlin follows also essentially a late Gothic/early Renaissance form. Indeed Otto van Falke (op. cit., p. II) claimed that the Gutmann double cup is, 'together with the Diana cup in possession of the German Emperor, the most magnificent evidence of this Gothic current in the late 16th century'.

Several other leading Nuremberg makers adopted this style including Hans Beutmuller who made a similar double cup set underneath with a medal of the Emperor Rudolph II (E. Alfred Jones, The Objects in Gold and Silver and the Limoges Enamels in the Collection of the Baroness James de Rothschild, London, 1912, p. 98 pl. XL). Peter Wiber also made a very similar cup to the present example some twenty five years later (Wenzel Jamintzer exhibition catalogue, op. cit., cat. no. 101).

Hans Petzolt became, after the death of Wenzel Jamnitzer in 1585, the leading Nuremberg goldsmith. He had become a master in 1578. Between then and his death he produced a large number of objects of which 40 or so are extant. From the Nuremberg city records we know that at various times between 1595-1614 he was commissioned to produce a total of 64 lobed and eighteen pineapple cups as well as two salt-cellars for presentation to visiting dignitories. From 1604 to 1609 he worked at the Prague court of that great patron of the arts, Rudolph II and there certainly met perhaps the other greatest silversmith of the age, Paul van Vianen.

One of the most striking aspects of his work is his virtuosity and his mastery of varied styles. The superb turbo-shell cup with triton and dolphin stem and half-length mermaid cover in the Museum of Decorative Arts in Budapest (J. Hayward, op. cit., p. 383, pl. 479) in the very latest fashion contrasts with the revivalist style that this cup so perfectly exemplifies.
fig 1. German silver-gilt double-cup, Nuremberg, circa 1500, (Inv. No. V. 414 a, b)
Courtesy of the Museum Für Kunstandwerk, Leipzig
(We are grateful to Dr. Ernst Ludwig Richter of Stuttgart for much of the information on the Starck family.)
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