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ATTRIBUTED TO BENJAMIN DEAN WYATT (LONDON 1775–1852) OR PHILIP WILLIAM WYATT (LONDON 1785-1835))
ATTRIBUTED TO BENJAMIN DEAN WYATT (LONDON 1775–1852) OR PHILIP WILLIAM WYATT (LONDON 1785-1835))
ATTRIBUTED TO BENJAMIN DEAN WYATT (LONDON 1775–1852) OR PHILIP WILLIAM WYATT (LONDON 1785-1835))
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ATTRIBUTED TO BENJAMIN DEAN WYATT (LONDON 1775–1852) OR PHILIP WILLIAM WYATT (LONDON 1785-1835))
7 More
ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS RELATING TO LONDONDERRY HOUSE AND WYNYARD PARK (LOTS 137-141)Mostly commissioned by Charles William Vane (1778-1854), 3rd Marquess of Londonderry for his Park Lane town house, Londonderry House, and his principal country House, Wynyard Park, County Durham, the following series of drawings demonstrate the burgeoning wealth and political ambitions of one of the most influential families in 19th century Britain. Lord Charles William Stewart (later Vane) became the 3rd Marquess of Londonderry on the death of his famed elder half-brother, better known by his courtesy title Viscount Castlereagh (1769-1822). It was in recognition Castlereagh’s substantial diplomatic achievements as British Foreign Minister during the Napoleonic wars that his father, Earl of Londonderry, was raised to the rank of Marquess in 1819; on the death of Castlereagh’s father in 1821, he became the 2nd Marquess of Londonderry. The 2nd Marquess would die without male heir only a year later when the title passed to Lord Charles and it was he who would shape a dynasty which would remain at the pinnacle of British social, political and industrial life for the century to come. On account of his distinguished military career, which culminated whilst serving under the Duke of Wellington in the Peninsula war Lord Charles, was often referred to as ‘Fighting Charlie’ and in 1812 sat for Sir Thomas Lawrence (1769-1830) resulting in a brilliantly observed portrait of the future Marquess in Hussar’s uniform (NPG 6171). Considered one of the artist’s greatest works, the painting serves to reinforce Stewart’s preferred image as the ‘Soldier Marquess’ but also betrays the swagger and pretension for which the sitter was well known in his own time. In 1813 he embarked on a diplomatic career resulting in his appointment as British ambassador to the court of Francis I, Emperor of Austria, in 1815, where he would assist both Castlereagh and Wellington during the Congress of Vienna. It was during his embassy that he met and married his second wife, the nineteen year old Lady Frances Anne Vane-Tempest (1800-1865). She was widely regarded as the greatest heiress of her generation and it was upon their marriage in 1819 that Stewart changed his name to Vane and it was through this union, the bride’s ancestral home Wynyard Park, County Durham, along with extensive estates and lucrative mining interests, came into the possession of the Londonderry family.The young bride brought with her an enormous income of some £60,000 per annum, which would finance the rebuilding of Wynyard Park on a monumental scale, as well as the purchase, expansion and remodelling of their vast London house, Holdernesse House (later Londonderry House) on Park Lane. Fashionable architects were required to realise the ambitious plans for the two houses and for this Lord Londonderry did not need to look far, employing his friend, the Duke of Wellington’s architects Benjamin Dean (1775-1850) and Philip William Wyatt (1785-1835) who had been engaged only a few hundred yards away at Apsley House. Whilst the brothers both seem to have worked at Holdernesse Philip appears to have largely taken charge of the project at Wynyard. The unexecuted exterior renderings in the following lot attributed to Benjamin or Philip Wyatt illustrate the scope of the new Marquess’ plans, which unarguably justify the use of the term ‘monumental’. The less ornamental but equally impressive severe Grecian design eventually adopted for the house appears ostensibly identical to Benjamin Wyatt’s design for the central block of the unexecuted Waterloo Palace. Some 300 feet in length and built at a cost said to exceed £100,000, the edifice perhaps demonstrates best Londonderry’s desire to keep up with, if not to compete with, his friend ‘The Iron Duke’. Holdernesse House, acquired in 1822, was designed to impress with the sole intent of providing a space for entertaining on the grandest of scales. Remodelled under the direction of Benjamin Wyatt alongside his brother Philip, it has been suggested that some £200,000 was lavished on reconstruction and the creation of the palatial interiors for which it would become so well known (H. Montgomery Hyde, Londonderry House and Its Pictures, London, 1937, p.6). The double staircase and ballroom or gallery on the first floor were particularly notable with a contemporary section drawing of the former and later 19th century drawings for the redecoration of the latter also included in the coming lots. Following a ball to celebrate the coronation in 1838 a young Disraeli commented ‘It was the finest thing of the season. Londonderry’s regiment being reviewed, we had the band of the 10th playing on the staircase; the whole of the said staircase (a double one) being crowded with the most splendid orange trees and Cape jessamines… the Duke of Wellington and the very flower of fashion assembled’ (H. Montgomery Hyde, The Londonderrys, London, 1979, p. 37). The reconstruction of Wynyard and Holdernesse House taxed Lady Londonderry’s Vane-Tempest inheritance so heavily, that Lord Londonderry was obliged to sell the magnificent Old Master paintings he had purchased from Napoleon’s sister, Caroline Murat, the deposed Queen of Naples. Thirteen paintings (including works by Titian and Domenichino) were sold at Christie’s in 1823 and later two Correggios were sold to the newly-created National Gallery. While in Italy in 1841 the Londonderrys learned that Wynyard, had been gutted by fire. It is said that Lady Londonderry took to her bed for a fortnight in despair, however, Lord Londonderry was undeterred and ordered the immediate reconstruction of the interiors within the surviving shell; seven drawings for the new interiors by Ignatius Bonomi are included in the sale. Both houses continued to play their intended roles well into the 20th century, with Londonderry House hosting legendary balls for as many as two thousand guests each year on the eve of the opening of parliament throughout the interwar years. Although by 1937 the 7th Marquess had foreseen the end of the grand life enjoyed by his forbears as many other grand London houses had already passed into the annals of history. The nationalisation of the coal industry crippled the revenues that had supported Wynyard and Londonderry House, and the latter was eventually demolished in 1962. Despite great efforts by the 9th Marquess to maintain Wynyard, the house was finally sold in 1987. AHS
ATTRIBUTED TO BENJAMIN DEAN WYATT (LONDON 1775–1852) OR PHILIP WILLIAM WYATT (LONDON 1785-1835))

Five proposed designs for the front and rear elevations of Wynyard Park; and a proposed design for an unrealised replacement bridge in the grounds at Wynyard; and a design for a garden fence and gate

Details
ATTRIBUTED TO BENJAMIN DEAN WYATT (LONDON 1775–1852) OR PHILIP WILLIAM WYATT (LONDON 1785-1835))
Five proposed designs for the front and rear elevations of Wynyard Park; and a proposed design for an unrealised replacement bridge in the grounds at Wynyard; and a design for a garden fence and gate
pencil, pen and grey ink and watercolour
12 1/8 x 19 ½ in. (30.8 x 49.5 cm.); and slightly smaller
(7)
Provenance
The 9th Marquess of Londonderry, and by descent.

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