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Lithography Lithography is a type of planographic print, where ink is applied on a perfectly level surface. The image is created by directly drawing onto the printing plate using an oil-based material - usually with wax substances onto a block of polished limestone or specially treated metal. Water and ink are then subsequently applied onto the printing plate to execute the print. Taking advantage of the incompatibility of water and oil, the drawn image will be printed as it attracts grease, whereas the non-image area attracts water. Since ink is applied on a level surface, the characteristic of lithographs therefore embodies a sense of flatness in them. As the creation of the print relies wholly on the hand drawn image, images drawn are able to demonstrate expressive characteristics that hand drawn images have, as well as a rich tonal variety, depending on how much oil-based material has been applied onto the printing plate. Light and shade of the image can be achieved through roughening the surface of the printing plate, adding more pictorial depth to the print. Some of Chu Teh-Chun and Zao Wou-Ki's lithographs have a painterly effect, almost like watercolour paintings. This effect can be achieved through a tonal technique called lithotint, with images drawn with a brush and an oil-based ink onto the printing plate. The smoother lines seen on his prints reflect that Chu may have used a smooth printing plate to execute his work, while the Abstract Expressionist gestural and expressive marks on Zao's prints reflect the advantages of lithography in allowing more freedom for the artist to draw the image. Etching Unlike lithography, etching is a type of Intaglio print, where ink is held in grooves under the surface of printing plate. In order to create the image, the printing plate has to be prepared and covered with wax - an acid resistant ground, before lines can be drawn onto the plate with an etching needle that exposes the metal surface which allows for lines to be incised later. The printing plate is then placed in an acid bath, where lines drawn on the plate will be etched with acid, creating grooves to hold ink for printing. The longer the plate is left in the acid bath, the deeper, broader and darker lines drawn will be. Paper has to be dampened before printing in order to receive the ink - which leaves a plate mark after printing, as the printing process requires a great amount of pressure, using a rolling press to print. At times, artists combine two different printing techniques to achieve certain visual effects in their work. Aquatint is commonly used together with etching to create tonal gradations, adding weight and dimension to the image. Similar to etching, aquatint relies on acid baths to create tonal areas; however, the printing plate for aquatint is prepared with a layer of heated resin powder before the illustration. The tonal gradations of aquatint is achieved through the various levels of acid bath, where certain areas of the print with lighter tones are achieved by the act of stopping out, covering them with varnish before the acid bath. Areas that have been placed in the acid for a longer period of time therefore result in a darker tone on the print. While the process of creating an etching may be complicated, this particular method enables flexibility for the illustration, and more control over the intensity of lines through varying degrees of acid baths. This allows for a greater precision of the image, as well as a greater tonal variation especially with the use of aquatint. Polígrafa Also worth mentioning is an important institution in printmaking: Polígrafa Obra Gràfica, which has helped to publish print editions by well-known artists such as Joan Miró, Max Ernst, Henry Moore, Michael Craig-Martin and Francis Bacon. Commonly known as Pol?grafa, the Barcelona print studio was founded in 1964 by Manuel de Muga, with its own facilities for a variety of printing techniques such as etching, lithography and woodcuts. Apart from promoting and working with Western artists, the print studio also publishes editions by contemporary artists around the world, including Chinese artists Zao Wou-Ki and Wang Huaiqing . Pol?grafa has been collaborating with Zao since 1976, and only started working with Wang in 2002, producing a successful edition of etchings. Wang's Red (2008) for instance, an etching published by Pol?grafa, presents a simple yet powerful red and black abstract composition, while at the same time alludes to traditional Chinese aesthetics.

One print from Saison bleue; & Elegance

One print from Saison bleue; & Elegance
signed in Chinese ; signed ' CHU TEH-CHUN' (lower right) ;& signed in Chinese ; signed ' CHU TEH-CHUN' (lower right)
edition 4/150;& 23/100
Executed in 2008 (Elegance)
lithograph; & lithograph
74 x 52.8 cm. (29 1/8 x 20 3/4 in.); & 64.7 x 49.4 cm. (25 1/2 x 19 1/2 in.)
2 x 19 1/2 in.) (2)
Hoke Orginal Art, Chu Teh-Chun: The Graphic Work 2000-2008, Taipei, Taiwan, 2008 (illustrated, p. 42).

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